AP p.2 front.pdf - "‘2 7 Classical oration the —...

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Unformatted text preview: "‘2 7. Classical oration, the — Five-part argument structure used by classical rhetoricians. 1‘38. Classical oration - Introduction (exordium) Introduces the reader to the subject under diSCussion ~29. Classical oration — Narration (narratio) Provides factual information and background material on the subject at hand or establishes Why the subject is a problem that needs addressing " 30. Classical oration — Confirmation (confirmatio) usually the major part of the text, the confirmatiou includes the proof needed to make the writer’s case. \. 31. Classical oration — Refutation (refutatio) addresses the counterargument. It is a bridge between the writer’s proof and conclusion ““32. Classical oration — Conclusion (peroratio) Brings the essay to a satisfying close " 33. Closed thesis — A statement of the main idea of the argument that also previews the major points the writer intends to make. The three—dimensional characters, exciting plot, and complex themes of the Harry Potter series make them not only legendary children ’s books but enduring literary classics. ‘ " 34. Complex sentence ~ A sentence that includes one independent clause and at least on dependent clause. 13‘ a free society cannot help the many who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich. — John F. Kennedy \f 35. Compound sentence — A sentence that includes at least two independent clauses. The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and _, all who serve it and the glow from that fire can truly light the world. — John F. Kennedy “7 36. Concession -— An acknowledgment that an opposing argument may be true or reasonable. In a strong argument, a concession is usually accompanied by a refutation challenging the validity of the opposing argument. Lou Gehrig concedes what some of his listeners may think ~— that his bad break is a cause for discouragement or despair. 37. Confirmation ~ In classical oration, this major part of an argument comes between the narration and refutation; it provides the development of proof through evidence that supports the claims made by the speaker. 38. Connotation — Meanings or associations that readers have with a word beyond its dictionary definition, or denotation. These are often positive or negative, and they often greatly affect the author’s tone. That cat is plump. That cat is fat. That cat is obese. 39- Context — The circumstances, atmosphere, attitudes, and events surrounding a text. The cantext for Lou Gehrig’s speech is the recent announcement of his illness and his subSequent retirement, but also the poignant contrast between his potent career and his debilitating disease. 40. Counterargument — An opposing argument to the one a writer is putting forward. Rather than ignoring a counterargument, a strong writer will usually address it through the process of concession and refutation. Some of Lou Gehrig’s listeners might have argued that his bad break was a cause for discouragement or despair. ...
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