Unformatted text preview: "‘2 7. Classical oration, the — Five-part argument structure used by classical rhetoricians.
1‘38. Classical oration - Introduction (exordium) Introduces the reader to the subject under
~29. Classical oration — Narration (narratio) Provides factual information and background material on the subject at hand or establishes Why the subject is a problem that needs
addressing " 30. Classical oration — Conﬁrmation (conﬁrmatio) usually the major part of the text, the
conﬁrmatiou includes the proof needed to make the writer’s case. \. 31. Classical oration — Refutation (refutatio) addresses the counterargument. It is a bridge
between the writer’s proof and conclusion ““32. Classical oration — Conclusion (peroratio) Brings the essay to a satisfying close " 33. Closed thesis — A statement of the main idea of the argument that also previews the major points the writer intends to make. The three—dimensional characters, exciting plot,
and complex themes of the Harry Potter series make them not only legendary children ’s
books but enduring literary classics. ‘ " 34. Complex sentence ~ A sentence that includes one independent clause and at least on
dependent clause. 13‘ a free society cannot help the many who are poor, it cannot save the
few who are rich. — John F. Kennedy \f 35. Compound sentence — A sentence that includes at least two independent clauses. The
energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and _, all who serve it and the glow from that ﬁre can truly light the world. — John F. Kennedy “7 36. Concession -— An acknowledgment that an opposing argument may be true or reasonable.
In a strong argument, a concession is usually accompanied by a refutation challenging the
validity of the opposing argument. Lou Gehrig concedes what some of his listeners may
think ~— that his bad break is a cause for discouragement or despair. 37. Conﬁrmation ~ In classical oration, this major part of an argument comes between the
narration and refutation; it provides the development of proof through evidence that
supports the claims made by the speaker. 38. Connotation — Meanings or associations that readers have with a word beyond its
dictionary definition, or denotation. These are often positive or negative, and they often
greatly affect the author’s tone. That cat is plump. That cat is fat. That cat is obese. 39- Context — The circumstances, atmosphere, attitudes, and events surrounding a text. The
cantext for Lou Gehrig’s speech is the recent announcement of his illness and his
subSequent retirement, but also the poignant contrast between his potent career and his
debilitating disease. 40. Counterargument — An opposing argument to the one a writer is putting forward.
Rather than ignoring a counterargument, a strong writer will usually address it through
the process of concession and refutation. Some of Lou Gehrig’s listeners might have
argued that his bad break was a cause for discouragement or despair. ...
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- Fall '15
- Bobbi Carter