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12 - Migration Terminology Measures

12 - Migration Terminology Measures - SOCI 121 Population...

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SOCI 121: Population Problems M IGRATION : T ERMINOLOGY AND M EASURES Objectives: Define migration and talk about why it is important Discuss migration terminology and measures Class Notes: Migration: What is it and Why is it Important? Migration is the most complex of the three population processes (mortality, fertility, and migration) because we have to account for the wide variety in the number of times people may move, the vast array of places migrants may go, and the incredible diversity of reasons there may be for who goes where, and when. The quality of our everyday life is greatly affected by the process of migration, for even if we ourselves never move, we will spend a good part of our lifetime adjusting to people who have migrated into our lives and to the loss of people who have moved away. o Humans have migrating throughout history, but the advent of relatively inexpensive and quick ground, water, and air transportation has given migration a new dimension at the very same time that rapidly declining mortality has accelerated population growth. o Migration has the potential to profoundly alter a community or an entire country within a short time. In-migration and out-migration can increase or decrease population size far more quickly than either mortality or fertility. Migration is defined as any permanent change of residence. o The most important aspect of migration is that it is spatial by definition. You cannot be a migrant unless you change your geographic location. However, just because you change your geographic location, you are not necessarily a migrant. You may be a traveler or perhaps a daily commuter from your home or work. o These activities represent mobility , but not migration. There are a number of categories of people who are mobile, but who are not necessarily migrants, because they have not changed their residence permanently. These include: Temporary resident (such as a construction workers on a job away from home for a few weeks or even months) Seasonal worker (returning regularly to a permanent home) Sojourner (typically international migrants seeking temporary employment in another country, who intend to return to their origin country). Even if you permanently change your residence, you need not be a migrant. 1
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SOCI 121: Population Problems If your new home is only a short distance away and you do not have to alter your round of activities (for instance, you still go to the same school, you have the same job, you shop at the same stores) then you are considered a mover . o All migrants are movers, but not all movers are migrants. o Thus a migrant is someone who makes a permanent change of residence substantial enough in distance to involve a shift in that individual’s round of social activity.
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