07 - Mortality Measures

07 - Mortality Measures - SOCI 121 Population Problems...

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SOCI 121: Population Problems M ORTALITY M EASURES Objectives: Discuss ways of measuring mortality Class Notes: How do we Measure Mortality? In measuring mortality, we attempt to estimate the force of mortality , the extent to which people are unable to live to their biological maximum. o The ability to measure accurately varies according to the amount of information available, and as a consequence, measures of mortality differ considerably in their level of sophistication. Crude Death Rate o The least sophisticated and most often quoted measure of mortality is the crude death rate (CDR). The crude death rate is the total number of deaths in a year divided by the average total population: CDR = 000 , 1 × p d where o d represents the total number of deaths occurring in a population during any given year o p is the total average (midyear) population in that year It is called crude because it does not take into account the differences by age and sex in the likelihood of death. Nonetheless, it is frequently used because it only requires two pieces of information: total deaths and total population. Differences in the CDR between two countries could be entirely due to differences in the distribution of the population by age, even though the force of mortality is actually the same. o For example, in 2000, Mexico had a crude death rate of 4 per 1,000, scarcely one-third of the 11 per 1,000 in Lithuania in that year. The two countries had identical life expectancy at birth of 72 years. The difference in crude death rate accounted for by the fact that only 5 percent of Mexico’s population was aged 65 and older, whereas the elderly accounted for 13 percent of Lithuania’s population. o Age-Specific Death Rate (ASDR) In order to account for the differences in dying by age (and sex), we must calculate age/sex-specific death rates. 1
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SOCI 121: Population Problems The age/sex-specific death rate ( n M x or ASDR) is measured as follows: x n M = x n x n p d × 100,000 o Where: n d x is the number of deaths in a year of people of a particular age group in the interval x to x + n The interval is typically a five-year age group, where x will be the lower limit of the age interval and n represents the width of the interval in years of age n p x is the average number of people of that age (usually defined as the midyear population) o The ASDR is typically multiplied by 100,000 to get rid of the decimal point. For example, in the United States in 2001, the ASDR for males aged 65 to 69 was 2,316 per 100,000, while for females it was 1,486. o Age-Adjusted Death Rate (AADR) It is possible to compare crude death rates for different years or different regions, but it is analytically more informative if the data are adjusted for differences in the age structure of the populations prior to making those comparisons. The usual method is to calculate age-specific death rates for two
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This note was uploaded on 11/02/2008 for the course SOCI 121 taught by Professor Lazar during the Fall '07 term at UNC.

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07 - Mortality Measures - SOCI 121 Population Problems...

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