COMM 201 Study Guide for FINAL - Aristotle's model of...

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Aristotle’s model of communication: o Ethos is speaker credibility. It is derived from the character and reputation of the speaker. o Logos is logical appeal. It relies on the form and substance of an argument. o Pathos is emotional appeal. It taps the values and feelings of the audience. The basic elements of effective public speaking: o Communication is the process of sharing meaning by sending and receiving symbolic cues. o An interpreter is any person using symbols to send or receive messages. o A symbol is anything to which people attach meaning. o A referent is the object or idea each interpreter attaches to a symbol. o Encoding is the process of selecting symbols to carry a message. o A message is any idea communicates verbally and/or nonverbally. o An environment is the physical setting and the occasion for communication. o Noise is anything that distracts from effective communication. Physical noise originates in the communication environment. Physiological noise originates in the bodies of communicators. Psychological noise originates in the thoughts of communicators. Levels of communication: o Intrapersonal o Interpersonal or dyadic o Group communication is when three or more people interact and influence one another to pursue a common goal. o Public communication is when one person communicates face to face with an audience. o Mass communication is when a person or group communicates to a large audience through some print or electronic medium. We remember 10% of what we read, 20% of what we hear, 30% of what we see, and 70% of what we speak. Ethics are standards used to discriminate between right and wrong and good and bad, in thought and in action. o Responsibilities of an ethical speaker 1. Speak up about topics you consider important. 2. Choose topics that promote positive ethical values. 3. Speak to benefit your listeners. 4. Use truthful material and valid reasoning. 5. Consider the consequences of your words and actions. o Responsibilities of an ethical listener 1. Seek exposure to well-informed speakers. 2. Avoid prejudging speakers or their ideas. 3. Evaluate the logic and credibility of the speaker’s ideas. 4. Beware of the consequences of not listening carefully. o Plagiarism is the unattributed use of another’s ideas, words, or pattern of organization. It can be intentional and deliberate, or unintentional, careless,
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and unconscious. Guidelines for building speaker confidence: 1. Know how your react to stress. 2. Know your strengths and weaknesses. 3. Know speech principles. 4. Know that it always looks worse from the inside. 5. Know your speech. 6. Believe in your topic. 7. View speech making positively cognitive restructuring 8. Visualize success. 9. Project confidence.
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COMM 201 Study Guide for FINAL - Aristotle's model of...

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