Radio--begins in 1920s; most popular entertainment next to sleeping Transisters, rather large radios Local/regional programming Stations drifted in and out More than 79% willing to give up movies, less than 14% willing to give up radio HOPES AND FEARS FOR RADIO IN THE 1930S 12 million radios c. 1930. (Population app. 123 million.) 40-odd c. 1940 (Population app. 132 million.) By 1935 app. 70% of homes had radios + cars, restaurants, bars, etc. Hold of radio on middle class Sales of radios 1. POPULARITY OF RADIO IN THE 1930S The Mae West controversy Home setting Close control by networks, advertising agencies and individual sponsors Commercial sponsors closely identified with programs Gradually assumed major supervisory role from individual sponsors Advertising agencies Development of ratings of listenership Federal licensing -- FCC est. 1934 (replacing older Federal Radio Commission 2. CONSERVATISM OF RADIO 1935 survey -- 65% preferred comedy to all other kinds of programs Comedy -- most popular Soap operas. 3. CONTENT OF RADIO Enthusiasm as positive, unifying force in nation e.g. Robert & Helen Lynd, Middletown studies of Muncie, Indiana: radio radio broadening; carried people away from localism
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