Lec 8a Philippine Birds [Compatibility Mode].pdf

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1 Philippine Birds Summary of avian diversity A guide to identifying birds Some representative species Pithecophaga jefferyii Alcedo argentata What are Birds? Class Aves Approximately 10,000 species worldwide Well adapted for flight – reduced weight Unique anatomical features – skeleton (fused bones), toothless bill, breast muscles, syrinx Feathers – lightweight cover and airfoil (remiges) Oviparity and Nesting behavior (monogamy) Endothermy and High metabolism (air sacs) Avian Topography External parts of a bird – mapping regions of avian body and notable features (crest) Distinct characters indicative of its name - blue- naped, white-bellied, blue-rumped, black-necked, red-breasted, red-crowned Unique avian characters – lore, auriculars, scapulars, primaries, secondaries, tertials, alula, culmen, gony, rictus, supercilium, Topography of Topography of Topography of
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2 Topography of 1. Upper mandible 2. Lower mandible 3. forehead 4. toes 5. lore 6. crown 7. nape 8. neck 9. Eye stripe 14. back 15. rump 16. Upper coverts 17. Lower coverts 18. 24. primaries 25. Secondaries 26. 27. Medien coverts 28. 29. 30. Medien coverts 31. Lesser coverts 35. tertials 36. tail Topography of 1. Upper mandible 2. Lower mandible 3. forehead 4. feet/toes 5. lore 6. crown 7. nape 8. mantle 9. Eye stripe 10. gape 11. chin 12. throat 13.neck 14. back/scapulars 15. rump 16. Upper tail coverts 17. Lower tail coverts 18. chest /breast 19. abdomen/belly 20. axilla 21. thigh 22. vent 23. Undertail coverts 24. Primaries 25. Secondaries 26. Primary coverts 27. Carpal joint 28. Greater upperwing coverts 29. Median upperwing coverts 30. Lesser upperwing coverts 31. Lesser underwing coverts 32. Median underwing coverts 33. Greater underwing coverts 34. axillaries 35. tertials 36. tail Avian body form Size and shape Long or short neck, long or short legs Sparrow-like or Thrush-like or Crow-like Pigeon-like or Chicken-like or Duck-like Reference point for comparative size Distinct avian groups - Swifts, Hawks, Kingfishers, Parrots, Rails, Terns, Plovers Nectarinia jugularis Plumage patterns Stiff flight feathers (remiges & retrices) Contour and Down (natal or definitive) Filoplumes, Semiplumes and Bristles Plumage patterns – pied, streaked, hooded, barred, silvery, striated, spotted, banded, masked, bibbed, ringed, browed, winged Juvenile and Adult, Winter and Summer Plumage colors – pigment or structural Color of Soft parts Natural colors – buff, rufous, citrine, ashy, cinnamon, slaty, olive, scarlet, sooty Structural colors – glossy and metallic Soft parts and other unique features Wattles, comb, eye-ring (circumorbital), gular skin, cere, bare skin on head Color of soft parts – bill, tarsus and iris Soft parts in birds Gallus gallus Gracula religiosa Halcyon chloris Hornbill
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3 Types of Feet Palmate (web on 3 toes) and Semipalmate Totiplamate (web on 4 toes) and Lobate (lobed) Anisodactyl (3 toes at front, hallux at back) Zygodactyl & Heterodactyl (2 toes front) Raptorial (with talons or claws) Pamprodactyl (all toes front)
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