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Bio 1109 Second Prelim

Bio 1109 Second Prelim - Bio 1109 Second Prelim and 19...

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Bio 1109 Second Prelim (chapters 13, 14 and 19) Fruits and see dispersal - a chestnut: spines are for defense, not dispersal - Osage Orange: elephants and mosquito repellant Coelacanth - only one species until 10 years ago - air breathing relatives of early lungfish developed skeleton Tetrapoda (four limbs) - First terrestrial vertebrates - Limbs allow them to move on land - They have a “definitive tongue” Amphibia (frogs, toads, tree frogs, salamanders, tropical caecilians) - Evolutionarily derived from early tetrapods - Most embryos and larvae must develop in water - Usually metamorphose to terrestrial adults - Lack an amniotic egg - Crytobranchids: adults reach 3.5 to 4ft long, closest relative of the earliest tetrapods Amniota (lay shelled eggs) - Terrestrially adapted shelled egg, internal fertilization and an integument that is less leakey than that of amphibians - Ectdotermic and obtain excess heat from external sources (the sun) Mamalia (hair, milk) - Endothermic amniotes with hair, which insulates their bodies, and mammary glands, which produce milk Monotremes (platypus and echidnas or spiny anteaters) - Lay eggs – they retain the primitive amniotic condition Marsupials (kangaroo, koala, opossum) - Short gestation (few days) - Tiny offspring complete development attached to the mother’s nipple usually inside pouch - Marsupial mice and lions exist – have analogous similarities to Eutherian mice and lions Eutherians (about 4,300 species), also called placentals - Relatively long gestation - Complete embryonic development occurs within the mother, and the young are nourished via a placenta - We are placental animals - Zebras are close relatives of donkeys Rodenia: 2025 species of rats, squirrels, porcupines, beavers - 2 upper incisors, 2 lower incisors - Woodchucks and prairie dogs are squirrels Chiroptera: about 1,000 species of bats
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Insectivora: about 400 species of shrews, moles, hedgehogs, etc. Carnivora: 275 species of dogs, cats, bears, weasels, raccoons - Skunks are weasels Primates, 235 species of lemurs, monkeys, apes Artiodactyla, more than 200 species of cows and deer Cetacea, about 80 species of whales, porpoises Perisodactyla, about 20 species of horses, rhinos, tapirs, zebras Reptilia (scaly skin, many lay eggs) Turtles Lizards and snakes Dinosaurs, etc. - Most diverse reptiles to inhabit land - Included some of the largest land animals - May have been endothermic, producing their own body heat Crocodylia (crocodiles) Aves (birds) - Teeth, wing claw, feathers, long tail with many vertebrae - Have scales and lay amniotic eggs - Archaeopteryx: fossil member - Wings (homologous with human arms/forelimbs), feathers, hollow bones - Highly efficient circulatory system and endothermic metabolism - Nest building, acoustic communication (like reptiles) Penguins - Flightless wings - Most charismatic of extant reptiles Reproduction Life cycle of multicellular organisms: growth and reproduction Sea urchins serve as a model system for studying early development in animals Reptiles are the closest living relatives to mammals Cell division (Mitosis)
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