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Unformatted text preview: Sociology Review Exam II **WHAT IS TYPE A PERSONALITY AND HOW HAS RESEARCH ON IT CHANGED OVER TIME? ** [Type-A Personality]: came out in the 1960s What is it? Defined as having multiple characteristics 1) Competitiveness 2) Impatience 3) Aggressive & Hostile 4) Sense of time pressure —always feeling like you have to go, go, go! Medical researchers tied Type A to HEART DISEASE REDFORD WILLIAMS—psychologist who realized that Type-A personality was not tied to heart disease. He was right!! He argued that it was HOSTILITY; he isolated this factor in his research. He looked for a relationship between HOSTILITY and health outcomes. Type-A is not bad for you, being hostile is. Hi Ho’s high hostility, you’re going to have a heart attack Think about the different ways that you can be hostile!! **HOW IS HOSTILITY MOST COMMONLY MEASURED? BE PREPARED TO LIST AND BRIEFLY EXPLAIN THE FORMS OF HOSTILITY MOST COMMONLY MEASURED. ** [Cook-Medley Hostility Scale]—does a good job of separating people into a form of hostility 1) Cynicism —negativity, general distrust of people’s motives as well as the people themselves. Everyone is cynical, but in this case we are talking about a basic distrust of people in general. This concept is aligned with Misanthropy 2) Hostile Attribution —attribution: process of figuring out why people are acting the way they are acting towards you. Can make different attributions about people. Hostile Attribution—when someone does something to you, your interpretation of that is a hostile act. You think everyone has hostility and hostile motives towards you!! a. Attribution trying to understand why someone is hostile toward you!! (Ex. The professor yelled at me because: he is a jerk, I am a woman, not a SOC major, but could also be due to gender, race, etc.) 3) Hostile Affect —affect: the way you feel. Hostile Affect—you feel hostile toward other people 4) Aggressive Responding —how you behave to other people. If you behave in overly hostile ways, you are an aggressive responder. PASSIVE AGGRESSIVE—one form of this responding 5) Social avoidance —avoiding social situations People with lower SES more likely to be hostile (SES hostile) **WHAT IS HOPELESSNESS AND HOW IS IT MEASURED? WHAT HAS RESEARCH SHOWN ON THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN HOPELESSNESS AND PHYSICAL HEALTH? ** * Hopelessness (most important)—Susan Everson “queen of hopelessness” o Everyone wants to have meaning in their lives: people with no meaning have high BP, get depressed easier, etc....
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- Spring '08