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Sociology Power Point Notes (second half of semester).docx...

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Sociology Power Point Notes (second half of semester)CHAPTER NINE-InCollapse, Jared Diamond shows that even well-established, organized, and culturally stable societies can collapseunder the weight of external forces like environmental or population crises-Demographyis the study of population and composition-all sociologists use demographic variables-demographic variableare variables such as population size, age, racial composition, birth rates, and death ratesused to discuss population-when studying populations, it is preferable to use rates and not total numbers when making comparisons betweencountries-this better takes into account the size of the population and variable such as births and deaths-fertility rateis the number of births that occur in a population-crude birth rateis the number of births for every 1000 people each year-age specific birth rateis the number of births for every 1000 women in a specific age group-total fertility rate(TFR) is the average number of births expected from any woman in a population to bear in herlifetime-zero population growthis a TFR of two, meaning that each woman has two children to replace the mother andfather-fertility rates have changed considerably in the US over time-in the 1950s the TFR was 3.5-today the TFR is about 1.9, which is below the replacement rate-race and ethnicity influence fertility rates – Hispanic women have a TFR of 2.3 births per woman as comparedwith African Americans (2.0), Asians (1.7) and non-Hispanic whites (1.8)-other factors also influence fertility rates-wealth and education – in general birth rates are inversely related to a women’s income and level of education-college educated women have lower fertility rates than women without college-this may be related to understanding of reproduction and increased use of birth control-mortalityis the number of deaths that occur in a population-crude death rateis the number of deaths for every 1000 people each year-age-specific death rateis the number of deaths for every 1000 persons of a given age group-infant mortalitymeasures the number of children of every 1000 born alive who die before they reach the age ofone-life expectancyis the average number of years a person is expected to live-lifespanis the maximum length of time a person can possibly live-apopulation pyramidis a tool that visually represents data related to the age and sex of a country’s population-in the USthe pyramid changed from a rectangular shape in 1960 to a more bottle shaped one in 1990; this wasthe result high fertility after World War II, and longer life expectancy-after World War II the US and many other countries experienced an increase in births-baby boomersare children born after World War II through the early 1960s-the baby boomers created apopulation momentumwhich is a surge in growth due to a large number of peoplewho are of birthing age-migrationis the movement of people from one area to another; people from disadvantaged areas tend to move to

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Term
Spring
Professor
Latimore

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