Sociology Power Point Notes (second half of semester).docx - Sociology Power Point Notes(second half of semester CHAPTER NINE-In Collapse Jared Diamond

Sociology Power Point Notes (second half of semester).docx...

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Sociology Power Point Notes (second half of semester) CHAPTER NINE -In Collapse , Jared Diamond shows that even well-established, organized, and culturally stable societies can collapse under the weight of external forces like environmental or population crises - Demography is the study of population and composition -all sociologists use demographic variables - demographic variable are variables such as population size, age, racial composition, birth rates, and death rates used to discuss population -when studying populations, it is preferable to use rates and not total numbers when making comparisons between countries -this better takes into account the size of the population and variable such as births and deaths - fertility rate is the number of births that occur in a population - crude birth rate is the number of births for every 1000 people each year - age specific birth rate is the number of births for every 1000 women in a specific age group - total fertility rate (TFR) is the average number of births expected from any woman in a population to bear in her lifetime - zero population growth is a TFR of two, meaning that each woman has two children to replace the mother and father -fertility rates have changed considerably in the US over time -in the 1950s the TFR was 3.5 -today the TFR is about 1.9, which is below the replacement rate -race and ethnicity influence fertility rates – Hispanic women have a TFR of 2.3 births per woman as compared with African Americans (2.0), Asians (1.7) and non-Hispanic whites (1.8) -other factors also influence fertility rates -wealth and education – in general birth rates are inversely related to a women’s income and level of education -college educated women have lower fertility rates than women without college -this may be related to understanding of reproduction and increased use of birth control - mortality is the number of deaths that occur in a population - crude death rate is the number of deaths for every 1000 people each year - age-specific death rate is the number of deaths for every 1000 persons of a given age group - infant mortality measures the number of children of every 1000 born alive who die before they reach the age of one - life expectancy is the average number of years a person is expected to live - lifespan is the maximum length of time a person can possibly live -a population pyramid is a tool that visually represents data related to the age and sex of a country’s population -in the US the pyramid changed from a rectangular shape in 1960 to a more bottle shaped one in 1990; this was the result high fertility after World War II, and longer life expectancy -after World War II the US and many other countries experienced an increase in births - baby boomers are children born after World War II through the early 1960s -the baby boomers created a population momentum which is a surge in growth due to a large number of people who are of birthing age - migration is the movement of people from one area to another; people from disadvantaged areas tend to move to

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