Unit 2 Psychology 320 Notes Section 2.1 o Information Processing System The coordinated operation of active mental processes within a multi-component memory system Also called Information Processing Approach Different components and parts o The information in there is going to be in a different form o With different kinds of processing associated with each of the parts or components of the information processing system o Consists of Sensory memory, short-term/working memory, and long-term memory Differences in: capacity (information that they can hold) and duration Sensory memory Information we are receiving from the environment in any given time Has no meaning till we apply things to that information Why do we need pattern recognition? o Because information in sensory register has no meaning Short-term/working memory Long-term memory o Pattern recognition
Identification of complex arrangement of sensory stimuli by matching that stimuli with information from previous experiences stores in long-term memory o Necessary Qualities Flexibility The same pattern as two different things (Same as different) Different patterns as the same thing (Different as same) Speed Be able to process it quickly Accuracy Also need to include a decision mechanism How do we know when we have the right pattern? Section 2.2 o Template theory Template- a specific pattern stored in memory Decision mechanism: search LTM (long-time memory) for a perfect match Computers use this kind of matching (bar codes) o Problems with Template Theory Speed Take too long to search through every single template o Propose parallel rather than serial search Flexibility: different as same Handwriting- we can read handwriting that we have never seen before o How can we have a perfect match Propose preprocessing- cleaning up the pattern
o How can we clean up when we don’t know pattern? o Context may help, but what about ability to recognize unexpected patter? o Prototype Theory More flexible version of template theory Prototype-abstract idealized patterns stored in memory Decision mechanism: close enough match o Advantage of Prototype Theory More flexible than template Do not need exact match Can identify different patterns as same thing o Example of forming prototypes Show people categories of faces Study each category, try to describe Notice shape of head, location of mouth Not all faces in each category match the shape, mouth qualities People pick the most prototypical characteristics and form a prototype Use the prototype to identify new faces o Problems with Prototype Inadequately developed theory How do people form prototypes?