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Neuroscience 9-4-07,9-6-07 - Neuroscience Biology and...

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9/04/07 Neuroscience: Biology and Behavior Biologic al Psychology The branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology, behavior, and the environment. Sub-Fields of Biological Psychology Behavioral Neuroscience Neuropsychology Behavior Genetics Physiological Psychology Biopsychology Neurons and Behavior Our nervous system is made up of billons of neurons Specialized cells that create a communication system throughout the body Parts of Neurons Dendrite The bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body. Axon The extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages are sent to other neurons or to muscles or glands. Myelin Sheath A layer of fatty cells segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons, Enables vastly greater transmission speed of neutral impulses Action Potential A neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon Generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon’s membrane Threshold The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse All of nothing response Neurons either fire or don’t When they fire, they do so with full force If the stimulation doesn’t reach threshold, they don’t fire This is called “All or nothing” response Speed of Neural Transmission
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9/04/07 How fast does an action potential travel? Synapse Junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron Tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft Vesicles, Neurotransmitters, Receptors Vesicles: Tiny containers of neurotransmitters at the end of a neuron Neurotransmitters:
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