Unit Review Lecture.ppt - BFF5902 Introduction to Risk Principles Review Lecture Risk Management from AS\/NZS 4360:2004 THE CULTURE PROCESSES AND

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Unformatted text preview: BFF5902 Introduction to Risk Principles Review Lecture Risk Management from AS/NZS 4360:2004 “THE CULTURE, PROCESSES AND STRUCTURES THAT ARE DIRECTED TOWARDS THE EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF POTENTIAL OPPORTUNITIES AND ADVERSE EFFECTS.” C O M M U N I C A T E C O N S U L T Structure Direction 1. Strategic Ct 2. Identify Threats A S S E S S 3. Analyze 4. Assess 5. Assess/ M O N I T O R & R E V I E W 7. Manage the Risk Processes Culture Communication Opportunities Risks Risk Management from AS/NZS ISO 31000:2009 “Risk: Effect of uncertainty on objectives. Risk Management: The Coordinated activities to Direct and control an organisation with regard risk” C O M M U N I C A T E C O N S U L T Structure Direction 1. Strategic Ct 2. Identify Threats A S S E S S 3. Analyze 4. Assess 5. Assess/ M O N I T O R & R E V I E W 7. Manage the Risk Processes Culture Communication Opportunities Risks Risk Management Culture Risk Culture This means that all our business behaviours relating to our individual performance encompass informed decisions to do or not to do things based on a reasonable analysis of foreseeable risks, opportunities and their associated impacts on the corporate objectives. Opportunities Risks the Business Risk Environment • The optimum place for risk to be managed is at the point that the exposure to risk occurs. Most risks faced by a corporation are best managed in a decentralised way within a centralised policy coordinated by a professional risk manager or manager with a passion for a risk culture. Risk Management • According to COSO there are Five methods used to manage risk: 1. Avoidance. This method can result in opportunity loss. 2. Retention. Risk retention can be both active and passive. 3. Non-insurance Transfers. This technique results in risk being transferred to a party other than an insurance company. 4. Loss Control. activities undertaken by the organisation to control the frequency and severity of losses. 5. Insurance. It includes risk transference, the pooling technique and the law of large numbers in its application Risk Principles •The concept of risk has three elements: – 1. The perception that something could happen – 2. The likelihood of something happening – 3. The consequences if it happens. Perception • The process by which we become aware of objects and events in the external world. • The process of making sense of the world around us. • Many people ignore the fact that all of us are different and that these differences equip us to view the world from our very own vantage points. Usually we spend more energy defending our own position than understanding others. Perception • Much of our knowledge comes to us through our senses, through perception. Perception, though, is a complex process. The way that we experience the world may be determined in part by the world, but it is also determined in part by us. We do not passively receive information through our senses. Perception • Arguably, we contribute just as much to our experiences as do the objects that they are experiences of. How we are to understand the process of perception, and how this should effect our understanding of the world that we inhabit, is therefore vital for epistemology Sensory Perception • It may seem like your senses passively perceive the world as it is, but that is not the case. The world cannot tell us what is important, why things happen, and what to do. The brain is what takes that information and makes it useful to us. Sensory Perception • However, what is useful changes at any given moment, which is why the meaning created by the brain is necessarily grounded in history. This includes both shared human history and private, personal history—the biases, memories, and assumptions that shape how we perceive. Perception is not a passive transmission of reality, but is instead an active process of interpretation, categorization, and prioritization, leading to knowledge. How are theories built? Ob1 Ob2 Ob3 Ob4 Filte r Unprejudiced & Independent Observer Selects Filter Ob’ n’ The Principle of Induction Universal Observation Statement (Fact) How Do We Harmonise Perception • The modern risk manager must in the first instance acknowledge the ‘perceptive diversity’ of the organisation. This diversity of it self is not a thing to be concerned about, but it must be acknowledged. Intellectual/perceptive diversity is often suggested as one of the new factors of production in the knowledge economy. Perception Harmonisation • Understanding perceptive diversity is critical in developing risk communication strategies and architecture. • Obviously, it is of no value to have everyone in the organisation seeing risk from their own perspective i.e. their own notion of what risk is!. Perception Harmonisation • The risk manager needs to develop language and concept tools to address this issue. These tools include establish a common definition of what risk is to the organisation, establishment of risk tolerance and risk appetite guidelines, together with the development of appropriate risk behaviours (risk sociology) for the organisation. Changing Risk Perceptions • Most humans will not change their behaviour, beliefs of habits unless motivated to do so. Most will not change even if the change is for the better, unless there is a compelling reason to do so. Ingrained beliefs and behaviours need some help to shift. Changing Risk Perceptions Risk perception change program Perception mapping Risk perception workshop Risk goal setting Risk Behaviour analysis Risk communication Changing Risk Perceptions • Risk perception workshop which aim to do align perceptions. Such workshops should be introspective and focuses on how we assess risks, why we choose to behave in ways we do and how we can influence each other’s risk decision making. Changing Risk Perceptions • Establish goal setting activities/dialogues. These program’s should be focused on changing risk response patterns and riskbased decision making processes. Once participants accept the goals that they had identified as their own persona behavioural goals, they become more conscious of their decision making and risk behaviour. Changing Risk Perceptions • Behaviour analysis identifies the underlying motivations and triggers that lead to an individual or group behaviour, with respect to business operations. • It is particularly useful in converting undesired behaviour into desired behaviour. It should also feed back into the organisations risk perception and goal setting activities. Changing Risk Perceptions • Risk communication needs to target cognitive, emotional and motivational levels when we inform people of relevant risks in the workplace. The risk communicator also needs to be creditable. If they an expert, trustworthy, altruistic, open and likeable, the information they provide will be more likely to be accepted. Knowledge Risk •In reality we make decisions that best fit the available data at that point in time when we are required to decide or make a choice. Knowledge Risk We will never be in a position of perfect knowledge. Knowledge Risk • Risk management is about improving the outcomes of decision making processes. To do this we require adequate knowledge of the subject discipline and the context in which the decision is to be made, in other words its knowledge paradigm. Knowledge Risk • The trouble is the difference between knowledge and information is becoming more ambiguous. • According to Fritz Machlup, ‘Knowledge is structured and very complex’, but can be acquired by thinking, with its components connected in varying ways and strengths’. Knowledge Risk • Information is such a component and is acquired by the receiver/interpreter being told, tweeted, etc and it can be occluded by the knowledge structure, causing the structure to change and create new knowledge. Knowledge Risk • Machlup argues that the observation of nature does not result in information in its own right. For the observation to become information it must be shared between two individuals; the informer (signaller, pointer, lecturer, writer etc) and the receiver (student). The act of thinking, inferring or interpreting data is not informational because it does not occur between two people. Knowledge Risk • Thus, Machlup claims that any experience external or internal, related or unrelated to new information, may initiate new knowledge. Information is a process, knowledge is a state. Knowledge Risk • Machlup follows the ‘Shannon and Weaver’ view of communication. In their model messages/information are transmitted from one person to another via a series of steps. At each of these steps the message can be altered/changed by interference. . youtube .com/watch?v=etcIX0aC-4E The Shannon and Weaver Communication Model Shannon and Weaver • Sender/Information source: The person who wishes to communicate the message. He or she makes up the message and the way it is communicated. • Influence: Sender basis his/her message on his/her self concept, culture, background and attitudes Shannon and Weaver • Encoder/Transmitter: This is the was the message is changed into signals, for example sound waves, the language used when speaking, or the grammar used when writing. • Influence: The sender encodes the message into verbal or non-verbal language or both, before transmitting. The words or symbols chosen can make an enormous difference in how the message is received. Shannon and Weaver • Decoder/Receiver: Decoding is done by the receiver when he gets the message. He has to decode the message that was coded by the receiver in order to be able to understand it. • Influence: The decoding or interpretation is dependant on the meaning placed on the message by the receiver. Shannon and Weaver • Receiver/Destination: The recipient of the message from the sender, if different from the decoder. He usually gives feedback to the sender in order to make sure that the message was properly received. • Influences: The receiver basis his/her intepretated meaning on his/her self concept, culture, background and attitudes Shannon and Weaver • Noise: The message is transferred through a channel, which can be interrupted by external noise. This in turn could result in the receiver getting an inaccurate message. This is why feedback from the receiver is important in case the message is not properly received. Furthermore, the noise can also affect the decoding of the message by the receiver. Shannon and Weaver • Noise Influence: Disturbances which may mean the message that was sent or intended is not the one that was received. These disturbances could be a shut door, children crying, language issues or political e.g. conflict between levels of management Shannon and Weaver • Feedback: This is when the receiver asks for clarifications from the sender. Feedback is important in order to make sure that the message has been well received. • Influence: Feedback can be verbal or written or a none verbal response such as a nod or • smile. A person may reject a message by simply walking away, even a "no" response • represents a form of feedback. Distinctions Between Data, Information & Knowledge • Date is raw, unprocessed and relatively un-meaningful, • Information has some meaning, though it is transitory and piecemeal, • Information tends to be timely and short lived, often seen as a flow of messages, e.g. tweets, which give something to the receiver/interpreter. Knowledge Risk • Knowledge is more enduring than information and is structured and organised. • Knowledge reflects something the receiver/interpreter already has. It allows the receiver to understand/interpret the information in a meaningfully way, thereby creating greater utility. Intermission Objectives of Risk Management Objectives of Risk Management • Maintain and enhance strategic risk enablers • Avoid risks that could materially affect the value of the firm • Contribute to sustainability – ADD VALUE • Take risks that the firm can manage in order to increase operational efficiency • Ensure transparency of risks through internal and external reporting • Ensure ongoing analysis and Classification of Risk • Risk classification can be described as a conventional, rank-based “Linnaean” taxonomy or more appropriately as a evolutionary cladistic system of taxonomy. • A “Cladistic” system of classification is a method which groups items hierarchically into discrete clusters which share common characteristics. Classification of Risk • Cladistic classification makes no prior judgement about the nature of the hierarchical structure but rather tries to organise the data based on an evolutionary framework which is exactly what happens in risk. High Order Generic Classifications • Diebold et al Risk Classification:Known (K). There is broad agreement between experts on the relevant theories and the underlying models. Unknown(u). Where there is more than one competing theory or a model with none dominant. Unknowable (U). Where there is no theoretical model. High Order Generic Classifications • Evans and Ganegoda added “Ambiguity-A” risks to the Diebold Classification in 2010. It was to deal with future outcomes that are vaguely defined due to ambiguous behaviour of the market participants, but the risks are neither K nor u. The uncertainty is created by market participants’ ability to respond differently to events and circumstances. High Order Generic Classifications • Therefore; • Ambiguity (A), risk occurs when we know the risk exists, but recognise that there is a range of outcomes, each of which can be modelled, but where we are uncertain as to which outcome will occur due to the difficulty of predicting human actions and counteractions. Benefits of Risk more rigorous basis for strategic planning • aManagement • better identification and exploitation • no costly surprises • better outcomes • greater openness and transparency • a better preparedness • improved loss control, reduced loss/incident damage • potential for reduction or stability in risk financing • improved flexibility • compliance with relevant legislation Step 1 : Establish Your Context •scope •organisational •environmental •outputs and business objectives •risk criteria (i.e. threshold levels) •linkage to other plans Step 6 : Monitor and Review Your Risks •process •environment •organisation •strategy •stakeholders Accept/Retain •based on judgement or documented procedures/policy Avoid •consider discontinuing or avoiding activity •consult •risk treatment preferable to risk aversion Step 2 : Identify Your Risks •identify key processes, tasks, activities •recognise risk areas •define risks •categorise risk Communicate and consult - at all steps Step 5 : Treat Your Risks Reduce consequence •contingency planning •contractual arrangements •public relations Step 3 : Analyse Your Risks •identify controls •determine likelihood •determine consequence/impact •rate risks Step 4 : Evaluate and Prioritise Your Risks •identify acceptable/unacceptable risks (referring risk rating against risk criteria) •prioritise risks for treatment Transfer •insurance •outsourcing Reduce likelihood •controls •process improvement •training •policies and communication •audit and compliance The risk management process Risk Context • Establishing the context defines the basic parameters within which risks must be managed and sets the scope for the rest of the risk management process. The context includes the organization's external and internal environment and the purpose of the risk management activity. Risk Context • This also includes consideration of the interface between the external and internal environments. • This is important to ensure that the objectives defined for the risk management process take into account the organizational and external environment. Risk Context • External context may include: • the business, social, regulatory, cultural, competitive, financial and political environment; • the organization's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats; • external stakeholders; and • key business drivers. Risk Context • Internal context includes: Governance model; Risk management approach; Active corporate culture; internal stakeholders (employees, contractors etc); Organisational structure and, Management style Risk Context capabilities in terms of resources such as people, systems, processes, capital; and goals and objectives and the strategies that are in place to achieve them. Risk Context • Internal context is important because: risk management takes place in the context of the goals and objectives of the organization; the major risk for most organizations is that they fail to achieve their strategic, business or project objectives, or are perceived to have failed by stakeholders; Risk Context the organizational policy and goals and interests help define the organization's risk policy; and specific objectives and criteria of a project or activity must be considered in the light of objectives of the organization as a whole. Risk Decision Making • Managing risk requires balanced thinking – A balance needs to be struck between the costs of managing the risk, the benefits to be gained and what level of risk management it is prudent to apply. – Recognising that a risk‑free environment is uneconomic – a decision is needed to decide what level of risk is acceptable. – In some cases the cost of measures to avoid or reduce risks and mistakes to an acceptable level can be high and the measures do not provide sufficient benefits. – In other cases the nature of the risk may warrant costly preventive measures because the level of risk that is acceptable is extremely low – cease or dispose of the activity. Risk Appetite • The level of risk that an entity is prepared to tolerate – Individual and composite risks fall within set acceptable tolerances – Risk acceptance – risk transfer risk elimination – risk avoidance – risk increase – risk acceptance are set by appetite. • The competence and capability of an entity’s human resources. Risk Appetite • What is the capacity of the organisation’s human resources to act in the interests of the entity? (e.g. human factor risk) • What risks will the organisation not accept? (e.g. environmental or quality compromises) • What risks will the organisation take on new initiatives? (e.g. new product lines) • What risks will the organisation accept for competing objectives? (e.g. gross profit vs. market share?) Risk Appetite • Appetite is determined through establishing the performance limits or criteria for all business functions – business metrics. • These metrics are then communicated to all areas of business decision making for inclusion into their risk decision making approaches. Bank Regulation • Herstatt risk – 1974 failure of Bankhaus Herstatt, an active player in FX market – Bank shut down in noon, after having received DEM, Counterparties never received their USD – Serious liquidity squeeze for counterparties – Shock for whole FX market – Birth of Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) Copyright Warren Gillian What is the Basel Committee? • Basel Committee on Banking Supervision was • • • • established by the central-bank governors of the G10 countries in 1974 – Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US Meets at the Bank for International Settlements in Basel Formulates broad guidelines in the expectation that individual authorities will implement them First major result was the 1988 Capital Accord Strong interest from non-G10 countries wanting to show the international stature of their banks Copyright Warren Gillian The Model Used by Regulators: X % W orstand the capital E xpected density function The loss probability C ase L oss L oss required by a financial institution R equired C apital L oss over tim e horizon 0 1 2 3 4 Basel II Approach to Operational Risk • Basel I Accord (1988) – Capital Charge for Credit Risk only • Incorporation of Market Risk ...
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