2008 SPS1010 MT1 notes

2008 SPS1010 MT1 notes - Welcome to Intro Astronomy SPS...

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Unformatted text preview: Welcome to Intro. Astronomy SPS 1010-01 1010- What this Course is About Roots: Astrology Scientific Method Apply Physics/Math Scale of Things Stellar Evolution Structure of Universe Current discoveries Spring 2008 Oingo Boingo: "Weird Science" Boingo: Science" Dr. Terry Oswalt Room 146, M,T,R,F 11am-12pm 11amPhys. Sci. Bldg. (in PSS office) Sci. [email protected] General Comments on this Course Skip Chaps. 9-15 this semester 9Homework policy Term project option Colloquia, SAS, SPS, SEDS, AIAA "Check-book math" Checkmath" Resources (see handouts) "10 percent rule" rule" Assignments SIGN THE ROSTER! Follow moon's motion this month moon' Get out at dusk and look for Mars! Daily quiz: #1 due Thursday Read F&K, Chapters 1-2 1HW #1: due Thu., Jan. 24 10 -28 10 -20 Proton Atom Virus 10 -12 10 -4 Dimensions Radius of Earth Earth to Sun 1012 1020 Orders of Magnitude Chronology Big Bang +25 Island universe (1925) +20 Milky Way - a spiral (1951) +15 +10 +5 0 Sun a star (<1600) Telescope (1610) Earth's size (200) Steel wire bridges (1883) Origin of Species (1859) 10 4 Galaxy Radius Universe 1028 Demo -5 Microorganisms (1675) -10 Double helix (1953) -15 Atomic nucleus (1911) Scientific Notation Powers of Ten 1 "...no other instrument has consistently addressed the question of our place in the universe as directly as the telescope." --Richard Panek, Seeing and Believing Adaptive optics: Without With The SUN as a STAR Star Formation Planet Formation Exoplanets 2 Gamma Ray Bursts Our place in the Galaxy Structure of the Universe Let's begin... 3 Intro. Astronomy SPS 1010-01 1010- Spring 2008 Dr. Terry Oswalt Room 146, M,T,R,F 11am-12pm 11amPhys. Sci. Bldg. (in PSS office) Sci. [email protected] QUIZ #2 The average person 2000 years ago knew more about what was going on in the night sky than the average person does today. True or false? WHY or WHY NOT? "Backyard Astronomy: THE SIZE OF EARTH Eratosthenes c. 200 B.C. The CELESTIAL SPHERE It's just an illusion--really! It' illusion--really! Orion from Melbourne, FL Orion from CTIO, Chile Cerro Tololo (Chile) CONSTELLATIONS They're all in your head, too! They' 1 Coordinates & Motions Equatorial Right Ascension Declination LMC North Horizon Horizon Altitude (alt) (alt) Azimuth (az) (az) SMC Celestial Equator Angular Measurement The key to getting distances SMALL ANGLES & PARALLAX Small angle s d d (pc) = 1 / (") THE SMALL ANGLE APPROXIMATION Size of object (s) Angular size () ( = 2 x distance (d) 360 degrees s = 2 2 d OR s = d "Hands-On" astronomy Hands-On" Modern Parallax: Distance to Moon Next lunar eclipse: Feb 20, 2008 DAILY MOTION & SEASONS d d= 66.9 Re Est: 4.27x105km Est: Act: 4.06x105km Lunar Parallax Demonstration Project see Sky & Telescope, Telescope, P. Lawrence, Aug. 2004, p94 http://homepage.ntlworld.com/ p.lawrence1/lunar_parallax_rotate.html 2 PRECESSION 3 Intro. Astronomy SPS 1010-E1 1010- Relative Distances of Sun & Moon Aristarchus of Samos, c. 280 B.C. Spring 2008 Pink Floyd: "Dark Side of the Moon" Moon" Dr. Terry Oswalt Room 146, M,T,R,F 11-12pm 11Phys. Sci. Bldg. (in PSS office) Sci. [email protected] Relative Sizes of the Earth & Moon Golfball Rising/Setting Times 6am 12pm 6pm 12am Lunar Phases Softball 12pm 6am 12am 6pm On this scale, how far away and how big is the SUN? Does the Moon Rotate? Sidereal vs. Synodic Month Sidereal ("real"): 27.32 days Synodic ("seen"): 29.53 days (" real" seen" 1 QUIZ #7: Using your astronomical knowledge, what can you say about the time and place this photo was taken? Lunar Eclipses http://sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/eclipse.html http://sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/eclipse.html Solar Eclipses Total Annular http://sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/eclipse.html http://sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/eclipse.html Why Eclipses Don't Occur Every Don' Month 2 Intro. Astronomy SPS 1010-E1 1010- "Baloney Detection Kit"-- C. Sagan Kit" Key to the Truth: SCIENTIFIC METHOD OCCAM'S RAZOR OCCAM' Observation Spring 2008 Webb: "Demon-Haunted World" DemonWorld" Galileo Galilei 1564-1642 1564- Theory Hypothesis Dr. Terry Oswalt Room 146, M,T,R,F 11am-12pm 11amPhys. Sci. Bldg. (in PSS office) Sci. [email protected] Test PUBLISH! Bin Frequency 0 0 110 0 1920 0 2130 0 3140 2 4150 9 5160 10 6170 11 7180 11 8190 4 91100 1 More 0 AVE 63.3 STDEV 14.1 Spring 2008 Intro. Astro. - TRAITS 12 10 F re q u e n c y 8 6 4 2 0 Science and Astrology 2006 Character Traits Bin 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 More Frequency 0 0 1 5 11 17 10 9 7 0 0 TRAITS, Fall 2006 20 15 10 5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % Agreement # 0 10 1- -2 21 0 -3 31 0 -4 41 0 -5 51 0 -6 61 0 -7 71 0 -8 81 0 -9 91 0 -1 00 19 N=48 Bin TRAITS N= AVE%= STDEV%= 60 67 13 Bin Frequency 0 8 110 6 1920 6 2130 3 3140 4 4150 1 5160 6 6170 7 7180 3 8190 3 91100 1 More 0 AVE 37.7 STDEV 30.5 Spring 2008 Intro. Astro. - EVENTS Event Predictions Bin Science and Astrology 2006 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Frequency 17 3 5 2 8 6 7 4 3 5 0 EVENTS, Fall 2006 20 15 10 5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % Agreement # 10 F re q u e n c y 8 6 4 2 0 0 11 19 0 -2 21 0 -3 31 0 -4 41 0 -5 51 0 -6 61 0 -7 71 0 -8 81 0 91 90 -1 0 Mo 0 re More N=48 Bin EVENTS N= AVE%= STDEV%= 60 43 32 1 Ptolemy's Geocentric Model: A Clockwork Universe (c. 140 A.D.) The HELIOCENTRIC Universe Planetary Configurations Sidereal vs. Synodic Period Nicholas Copernicus 1473-1543 1473- Winter 2008: Mars will be at opposition again! Retrograde Motion & Epicycles The HELIOCENTRIC Universe INFERIOR PLANET E = Earth's Sideral Period Earth' P = Planet's Sidereal Period Planet' S = Planet's Synodic Period Planet' Angular Velocities Earth: 360 / E (/day) 360 ( Planet: 360 / P (/day) 360 ( Time to next conjunction takes "S" days: Earth moves, in degrees (360/E) x S (360 Planet moves, in degrees (360/P) x S (360 So: (360/P) S = (360/E) S +360 (extra lap) 360/P = 360/E + 360/S 1/P = 1/E + 1/S Tycho Brahe: Observation Sidereal vs. Synodic Period Tycho Brahe 1546-1601 1546- Visit The Telescope = Revolution! Heliocentric Model Tested Surface of Moon Sunspots Moons of Jupiter Phases of Venus Question of the day: What is this? This is the finger with which the illustrious hand covered the heavens and indicated their heavens immense space. It pointed to new stars with the marvellous instrument, made of glass, and revealed them to the senses. And thus it was able to reach what Titania could never attain. Galileo vs. Ptolemy PUBLISHED! 2 Johannes Kepler: Hypothesis EMPIRICAL Laws I. Orbits are ELLIPSES with Sun at one focus See the book "Celestial Intrigue" Intrigue" Kepler's Laws, continued II. Equal areas, equal times Johannes Kepler 1571-1630 1571- Johannes Kepler 1571-1630 1571Conic Sections http://home.cvc.org/science/kepler.htm http://home.cvc.org/science/kepler.htm III. Harmonic Law: P2 = a3 http://home.cvc.org/science/kepler.htm http://home.cvc.org/science/kepler.htm demo http://faraday.physics.uiowa.edu/mech/1Q40.70.htm Isaac Newton: Theory Universal Law of Gravity Newton's Laws I. Inertia "Objects tend to move at constant velocity in a straight line UNLESS acted upon by a force." force." II. Force: F= ma Force: "How a FORCE is defined" defined" III. Action-Reaction Action"Forces only come in pairs" pairs" demo Isaac Newton 1642-1727 1642- Correction to Kepler's 3rd Law: Kepler' Law: (m1 + m2)P2 = a3 How many force-pairs here? force- Isaac Newton: Theory Differential Gravity: Tides Isaac Newton: Theory Differential Gravity: Spring & Neap Tides dF/dr = -Gm2m2/r3 http://www.geocities.com/wenraylm/tidecycle.html http://www.geocities.com/wenraylm/tidecycle.html 3 ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/03/2008 for the course CSE 1002 taught by Professor Marico during the Spring '08 term at FIT.

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