zoology_final_notes - Organization of the Vertebrate Body...

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Organization of the Vertebrate Body Vertebrates are very complex in multicellularity Hierarchy of organization Cells → Tissues → Organs → Organ Systems Cells- derived from the division of the zygote, resulting in primary Ectoderm, Mesoderm, Endoderm Tissues- groups of cells with common structures and functions Held together with biological glues with basement layer, or are held in fibrous matrix 4 types Epithelial tissue 2 criteria for classification Simple epithelium- single layer Stratified epithelium- multiple cell layers Glands- specialized epithelial cells that secrete or excrete products, formed into specialized structures Exocrine- connected to epithelium through which gland excretes fluids produced. Ex. Digestive tract, oil, sweat, mammary glands, etc. Endocrine- lost their connections with the epithelial tissue and secrete the products that they produce directly into the bloodstream Hormones- produced from testes, ovaries, pancreas, etc. eg. Adrenal, thyroid, pituitary, thymus, peralthyroid glands. Connective tissue- keeps other tissues together, and provides them with support Loose connective tissue- serves as a packing material for organs and organ systems Collagenous- tensile strength, resists tearing Elastic and reticular Adipose- important for fat storage Provides energy and insulation Fibrous- dense due to large amount of collagen fibers Tendons- attach muscles to bone Ligaments- join bones together at joints Cartilage- collagenous fibers in chondrin matrix = protein/carbohydrate complex Blood- considered a connective tissue with liquid plasma Erythrocytes, leurocytes, platelets Muscle tissue- long, excitable cells Most abundant tissue in animals Skeletal Cardiac Visceral (smooth) Nervous tissue Organs- different types of tissues organized into specialized centers of function Ex. Stomach and skin have layers of different tissues Organ systems- carry out the main functions of vertebrates
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This note was uploaded on 11/05/2008 for the course ZOOL 101 taught by Professor Womersley during the Fall '07 term at Hawaii.

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zoology_final_notes - Organization of the Vertebrate Body...

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