chem 141 F07 Chapter 11 Study Sheet

chem 141 F07 Chapter 11 Study Sheet - observed(and...

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Please refer to the “General Study Sheet” Post for information regarding the exams CHAPTER 11 THEORIES OF COVALENT BONDING INTRODUCTION In chapter 10 we developed ways in which to predict the shape of molecules using Lewis structures and VSEPR theory. In chapter 11 we developed the valence bond (VB) theory to account for covalent chemical bonding from an orbital level. This theory is used to explain how the shapes we see can be explained from a quantum mechanical orbital view. (Molecular orbital (MO) theory is also used this way but is not covered until organic chemistry next year.) Valence bond theory, proposed by Linus Pauling, is based on the idea that “a covalent bond forms when the orbitals of two atoms overlap and are occupied by a pair of electrons that have the highest probability of being located between the nuclei.” (Silberberg, p 399) Pauling used the concept of hybrid orbitals to explain the shapes
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Unformatted text preview: observed (and predicted by VSEPR). The hybrid orbitals studied include sp, sp 2 , sp 3 , sp 3 d and sp 3 d 2 and are used to explain liner through octahedral shapes and bond angles. VB theory was also applied to the concepts of multiple bonds ( σ and π type bonds) and molecular rotation. GOALS 1. You should understand how VB theory uses hybrid orbitals to explain the shapes and bond angles of molecules. 2. You should be able to use partial orbital diagrams to explain the bonding as per VB theory. 3. You should understand the difference between σ and π type interactions in VB model of bonding. DEFINITIONS You should have a working knowledge of at least these terms and any others used in lecture. VB Theory hybridization Hybrid orbitals Atomic orbitals Sigma ( σ ) bond sp sp 2 sp 3 sp 3 d sp 3 d 2 Pi ( π ) bond Bond order Molecular rotation Angular overlap...
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