Distillation - Experiment 3 Revision 1.2 Distillation of...

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Experiment 3 Revision 1.2 Distillation of Alcohol To learn about the separation of substances. To learn about the separation technique of distillation. To learn how to characterize a substance using its density. To learn about fermentation. In this laboratory exercise, we will distill the Alcohol from Wine to form Brandy. We will characterize the resulting Brandy by its density, its combustibility and its boiling point. The density measurement will then allow us to determine the Volume Percentage Alcohol in the Brandy, which will in turn allow us to determine its Proof. The simple distillation process we will employ typically produces a Brandy of approximately 120-140 Proof. Alcohols are important industrial materials and solvents. These include Methanol, Ethanol, Isopropanol and Ethylene Glycol. Ethanol, or Ethyl Alcohol, is used as a solvent, fuel additive, and in lotions, tinctures and medicines. It is probably most familiar as the alcohol of alcoholic beverages and is referred to generically as Alcohol, Common Alcohol or Grain Alcohol. For this last purpose, Ethanol (CH 3 CH 2 OH; or EtOH for short) is produced by fermentation of sugars. Fermentation alone does not produce beverages with an Alcohol content greater than 12 to 15% because the fermenting yeast is destroyed at high Alcohol concentrations. To produce beverages of higher Alcohol content the aqueous solution must be distilled. The fermentation of carbohydrates into Alcohol is one of the oldest known chemical processes. Fermentation can be represented as: Sugar Alcohol + Carbon Dioxide (Eq. 1) The reaction is catalyzed by yeast enzymes called zymases. A balanced chemical reaction for this process, assuming the sugar is Table Sugar or Sucrose, is: C 12 H 22 O 11 + H 2 O 4 CH 3 CH 2 OH + 4 CO 2 (Eq. 2) The fermentation process is started by mixing a source of sugar, water and yeast and allowing the yeast to act in an oxygen free environment. This anaerobic environment forces the yeast to shut down the “burning” of sugar and allows them to, instead, ferment Alcohol.
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We will concentrate the Alcohol, produced by this fermentation, from the aqueous solution in which the fermentation takes place, by distillation. Our fermentation product will be wine, which is about 12% Ethanol. Distillation is a separation process for a mixture of liquids or oils. It relies on differences in the boiling points of the component liquids to be separated. The mixture to be separated is added to a Distilling Pot where it is heated to the boiling point. Lower boiling components will preferentially vaporize first. This vapor passes into a Distilling Head and then into a Condensor.
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This note was uploaded on 11/06/2008 for the course CHEM 121 l taught by Professor Na during the Spring '08 term at John Brown.

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Distillation - Experiment 3 Revision 1.2 Distillation of...

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