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OxalateTitration - Experiment 8 Revision 1.0 The...

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Experiment 8 Revision 1.0 The Determination of Oxalate Ion using Titrimetry Learn how to perform a quantitative chemical analysis. Learn how to perform a titration. Learn about Oxidation-Reduction reactions. In this laboratory exercise, we will determine the Percentage Oxalate Ion (C 2 O 4 2- ) in a given sample using a technique called Titration; a type of Volumetric Analysis. This will involve adding Potassium Permanganate (KMnO 4 ) solution, whose concentration is previously determined, to the solution of Oxalate Ion until the reaction between these species is complete. By knowing the reaction stoichiometry, the volume Permanganate required, and the concentration of the Permanganate used, we can quantitatively determine the amount of Oxalate Ion present. A quantitative chemical analysis involves determining not just which chemical species are present in a given sample, but how much of each of these species is present. In our case, we will perform a quantitative analysis of the amount of Oxalate Ion using a Volumetric analytic technique called Titration. Volumetric Titrimetry involves measuring the volume of a solution of known concentration (the Standard Solution) that is needed to completely react with an Analyte. The amount of analyte present is then determinable from the measured volume, known concentration and reaction stoichiometry. # mole Analyte = (stoichiometric ratio) x V std x M std (Eq. 1) The earliest known titration involved an analysis to determine of the amount of Pearl Ash (K 2 CO 3 ) present in a bleach by measuring the number of teaspoons of dilute Nitric Acid (HNO 3 ) required for effervescence of the Pearl Ash to cease. In that case, the Standard solution was Nitric Acid, the volume was measured using a teaspoon and the completion of the reaction between the Pearl Ash and the Nitric Acid was detected by noting the cessation of effervescence. K 2 CO 3 (aq) + 2 HNO 3 (aq) 2 KNO 3 (aq) + H 2 CO 3 (aq) (Eq. 2) Effervescence is Caused by: H 2 CO 3 (aq) CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (Eq. 3) Currently, a Titration is performed by slowly adding the Standard Solution to the Analyte Solution via a Buret until an Endpoint is reached. The Endpoint is represented by some distinct physical change in the Analyte Solution; cessation of effervescence in the case of the Pearl Ash titration. If the Endpoint is chosen well, the Endpoint will represent the Equivalence Point of the
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Titration Reaction; the point at which the added amount of titrant is stoichiometrically equivalent to the amount of analyte.
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