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18.docx - BIOC 201 Write-Up November 9 Topic 2 Ryan Lynch...

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BIOC 201 Write-Up: November 9, Topic 2 Ryan Lynch, Group 18 Gastrulation is the process by which a blastula develops into a gastrula. A blastula is a hollow ball of cells which surrounds a cavity called the blastocoel, which contains compounds necessary for cell differentiation. When a blastula is mature, it begins to transform into a gastrula through invagination. During this process, some of the cells on the outside of the blastula go inside of it, and those that remain spread to cover the entire surface, including the vacant space left by the cells that invaginated. This will tend to occur at either the ventral or posterior side of the embryo. It is during invagination that the three distinct germ layers of the gastrula become distincty formed; they are the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. The ectoderm is the outermost layer of the gastrula, the endoderm is the innermost layer, and the mesoderm is found in between them. The ectoderm can be further divided into two categories: neuroectoderm, and surface, or external, ectoderm. The neuroectoderm is formed when the ectoderm on the surface
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