BIOCUNIT1StudyTopics.docx

BIOCUNIT1StudyTopics.docx - Covalent and hydrogen bonds...

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Covalent and hydrogen bonds : Water is covalently bonded (electrons are shared between the atoms), the oxygen side of the molecules has a partial negative charge, and the hydrogen side has a partial positive charge. Hydrocarbon tails: Largely non-polar molecules, hydrophobic (versus hydrophilic) Covalent Bonds: the sharing of a pair of valence electrons by 2 atoms. Bonding capacity: generally determined by the number of unpaired electrons required to complete the outer shell. Refers to the number of bonds that can be on an atom. Hydrogen Bonds: when a hydrogen atom is covalently bonded to an electronegative atom, the hydrogen atom has a partial positive charge that allows it to be attracted to a different electronegative atom nearby. Hydrophobic interactions How oil and water interact: in water, lipids will congeal together (the hydrophobic interaction) Why? The water next to oil drops form a lattice, remaining relatively still. When the oil congeals, there is less surface area of oil droplets, and less water that remains in this state. Thus, where there is more water moving, there is a higher state of entropy. Water moves from a lower to higher state of entropy. Polysaccharide Structure and Function Simplest carbs: monosaccharides, which are simple sugars. They have molecular formulas that are a multiple of the unit CH20 disaccharides: two monosaccharides joined together in a glycosidic linkage: a covalent bond formed between 2 monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction, polysaccharides are the most complex. Sugar Trademarks: Carbonyl Group (CO) and multiple hydroxyl groups (OH), classified by the length of carbon skeleton, and are classified by spatial arrangement of their parts around asymmetric carbons. Polysaccharides: polymer of covalently attached sugars. Storage Polysacch: ie. starch (stored as granules), most monomers in starch are joined by 1-4 linkages (#1 carbon to #4 carbon). Animals store glycogen, which are sugars obtained by hydrolysis. Glycogen is a branched polysaccharide, and branches occur at when the a monosaccharaide will also contain a 1-6 linkage Structural Polysacch: ie. cellulose, which utilizes B glucose instead of a glucose. Glucose in starches are all in one orientation, but glucose in cellulose all alternate in orientation. Chitin is another structural polysacch but contains nitrogen groups Cellulose is never branched, some hydroxyl groups on its monomers are free to hydrogen-bond with the hydroxyls of other cellulose monomers lying parallel to it. Lipid Structure and Function Constructed from glycerol and fatty acids. Glycerol is an alcohol, and fatty acid is a long, carbon skeleton, which are 16-18 carbon atoms in length. Carbon at one end is part of a carboxyl group. Glycerol and fatty acids are connected via ester linkage.
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