studyguide_exam2_spring16 (Autosaved).docx

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Study Guide for Exam 2 Biology 1010 Maren Bauer Textbook chapters 5 - 8, 15 - 16. (entire chapters 6 & 7, sections from the other chapters) Prokaryotic organisms ( domains Bacteria and Archaea ) Prokaryotes NO NUCLEUS or ORGANELLES What are three common shapes of prokaryotic cells? Where do prokaryotes live? Prokaryotes living in very extreme environments (very hot temperatures, very salty conditions, very acidic conditions, …) belong to which domain? What are flagella? What are pili? Attachments What is the capsule of a prokaryotic cell? Sticky covering for attachment. Do all prokaryotic cells have a cell wall, capsule, pili, and flagella? NO Ways that prokaryotes impact other living things include: 1. Many prokaryotes make _____________ available to other organisms by decomposing waste products and dead organisms. 2. Many bacteria convert ____________ energy or other forms of energy in the nonliving environment into forms of energy that other organisms can use. 3. Some prokaryotes are important in the _________________ systems of animals and humans. 4. Some prokaryotes cause ______________ in humans and other organisms. 5. Some prokaryotes are part of producing human ___________ such as yogurt, cheese, and leavened bread. A common photosynthetic bacteria is ____________________________. Prokaryotes typically reproduce using the process of _______________ ______________. What does this process involve? In a bacterial species that reproduces every 30 minutes under favorable conditions, a single cell could produce more than 4,000 cells in just ____________ hours. 1
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Why does refrigeration slow down food spoiling? What are antibiotics used for? Energy Light, electricity, heat, kinetic __________, and chemical __________ are different forms of ___________. Energy is conserved. Energy is not _______________ or _________________. Energy can be _____________ from one form to another. Every time energy is converted from one form into another, some is converted into _________. Chemical energy is energy contained in the chemical __________ between atoms in a _____________. A cell uses energy to do ________. What are three types of work performed by cells? (mentioned in class) 1. 2. 3. What molecule do cells use as their direct energy source to do work? ATP ATP is an abbreviation for _______________ __________________. An ATP molecule contains one ______________ molecule and three _______________ ____________ . When ATP provides energy for doing work, a phosphate group is transferred from ATP to another molecule. The ATP molecule has then become an ________ molecule. ADP is an abbreviation for ________________ _________________. An ADP molecule contains one ______________ molecule and two ______________ ____________. In order to regenerate ATP, a ______________ group is attached to ______ to form ATP. Where do cells get energy to “recharge” ATP molecules? 2
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Describe the ATP cycle. Transport across cell membranes What is an ion? What is the difference between passive and active transport across a cell membrane? Six ways that molecules and ions move across cell membranes are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Movement of molecules across the phospholipid bilayer of a cell membrane is __________ _____________. In simple diffusion molecules move from an area of ______________ concentration to an area of ______________ concentration.
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