learning and memory study guide ch. 17, 18, 10

learning and memory study guide ch. 17, 18, 10 - 11/10...

This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

11/10 Terry Ch. 10, Mallott Ch. 17, 18 A. Ratio Schedules 1. Schedules of Reinforcement - the way reinforcement occurs based on the number of responses, time since reinforcement, time between responses, and stimulus conditions a. Intermittent Reinforcement - instances where reinforcement occurs, but not after each response Ie: the diver had to dive in the water numerous times before he got the coin includes all types of schedules: fixed, variable, and others b. Continuous Reinforcement - instances where reinforcement occurs after every response Ie: student laughs every time teacher tells a joke Shaping involves reinforcing each behavior that resembles desired behavior, such as saying a word correctly 2. Fixed-Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement - reinforcement follows after a fixed number of responses a. Fixed-Ration Responding (FR) - the principle that says after a response is reinforced, no responding occurs for a period of time, and then responding occurs at a high and stead rate until the next reinforcer is delivered Ie: when people are invited to participate in community event, at first neighborhood is slow in signing up, but after seeing more enthusiasm from neighbors, sign ups increase heavily and quickly Counting is not a requirement Reinforcement occurs after pigeon makes the required number of responses, regardless if counting occurred or not FR 50 50 stands for 50 fixed number of responses b. Postreinforcement Pause - pause that occurs after reinforcer is delivered and before next ratio of responses begins Characteristic of fixed-ratio behavior Length of pause is proportional to size of ratio If ratio is large, pause will be long If ratio is small, pause will be short c. High ratio responses requires gradual increases throughout response timeframe d. General Rule for Establishing Intermittently Reinforced Behavior First use continuous reinforcement Gradually increase the intermittency of reinforcement as responding stabilizes at a high rate

This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document
(ie: When Bush first entered office, he fulfilled all his big promises: issued refund checks, etc, and got so much support that let him declare war on Iraq w/little resistance) 3. If you make the ratio too high too quickly, then response distinguishes Straining the Ratio B. The Cumulative Graph 1. Cumulative Graph - a graph used 2 plot data of schedules of reinforcement a. Vertical axis (ordinate)- cumulative frequency of responses b. Horizontal axes (abscissa)- time C. Variable-Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement 1. Variable-Ratio (VR) schedule of reinforcement - a reinforcer follows after a variable number of responses a. Variable Ratio responding - variable ratio schedules produce a high rate of responding with almost no postreinforcement pausing b. VR50, 50 stands for the average number of responses required for the reinforcer Steve hits on numerous babes with the line “Hey babe, what’s your sign?” This behavior gets reinforced a t a large
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Page1 / 7

learning and memory study guide ch. 17, 18, 10 - 11/10...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document
Ask a homework question - tutors are online