developmental psych study guide for test 2

developmental psych study guide for test 2 - Chapter 8-...

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Chapter 8- Cognitive Development in Early Childhood A. The Preschooler’s mind Preoperational Thought 1. Piaget placed preschoolers into his Stage 2: Preoperational Thought 2. Preoperational thought is the process of using mental representations (symbol) to think about objects and events, even if they are not physically available 2 see, hear, or touch; emergence of intuitive thought a. Language symbols- linguistic skills grow rapidly since, they can now let a symbol (ie: word) represent an object in the environment b. Art symbols- abilities to create mental representations via art increases; (Ie: drawing picture of family, child can depict mother’s hair color, father’s favorite activity, etc) c. Play Symbols- they can now use unrelated objects to represent another object, represent this in play (ie: pretend a toy banana is a phone when playing House) 3. Children also begin to use Intuitive Thought reasoning based on personal experience, w/o formal logic system a. Children reason according to what things “seem like” (ie: when mom used to tell me I came from her tummy, I thought that meant I came out of her belly button) b. Intuitive thought represented through: Egocentrism, Animism, and Artificialism i. Egocentrism - young child’s inability to see other ppl’s perspective a. Believe that all people share the same perspectives b. Lacks logical understanding why ppl may share different views c. Ie: mountain experiment, shows child a model of a 3D mountain, places doll at opposite side, children usually believed the doll had the same view of mountain as they did d. 4-5 year olds provide their own perspective, 6 year olds show some awareness of doll’s perspective, 9 year old’s understand doll’s perspective ii. Animism - idea that inanimate objects have conscious life and feelings (ie: Mimi) iii. Artificialism - notion that artificial events (rain, sun) are under the control of people or superhuman agents (ie: it rains when God cries) 4. However, children in stage 2 do not think with operations (conversion) a. Preoperational children practice “ conservation ” based on the idea that the basic properties of an object (volume, mass) remain the same even if its physical appearance changes b. ie: they can’t justify why liquid poured into a container can be re- poured into the original container, nor can they understand why 2 beakers of different volume/mass may contain the same amount of liquid even though the height of liquid in 1 beaker is higher
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B. Piaget’s overall analysis of the limitations of Preoperational Thought: 1. Preoperational Children practice Centration thinking can only focus on 1 aspect of a situation at a time instead of taking several aspects into consideration 2. Preoperational Children focus on the Static Endpoints of transformation (how things look before and after transformation) rather than the transformation itself (ie: in the liquid problem, children focused on height of liquid rather than considering the different heights/widths of beakers)
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developmental psych study guide for test 2 - Chapter 8-...

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