09 RAT ANATOMY 2007 - Rattus norvegicus Dissection Rat...

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Unformatted text preview: Rattus norvegicus Dissection Rat Dissection Objectives A. Describe structures of the rat, using anatomical directions. Describe the major systems of the rat, and compare these system with those of the crayfish and humans. Relate the physiology of the major systems of the rat to its anatomy. Anatomical terminology ANATOMICAL Directions Cranial (Anterior) / Caudal (Posterior) Dorsal / Ventral Lateral / Medial Proximal / Distal Superior / Inferior Anatomical Terms Anatomical Sections Structures performing similar functions may or may not share a common ancestry. Homologous Analogous Homologous Organs which are equivalent morphologically and of common evolutionary origin but which may be similar or dissimilar in appearance or function. bird wing vs. rat forelimb Analogous Organs which are similar in appearance and/or function but which are neither equivalent morphologically nor of common evolutionary origin. bird wing vs. insect wing. A. Analogous B . Homologous 1. Rat Testis & Ovaries 2. Rat Vas Deferens & Oviduct 3. Crayfish mandibles & rat jaw Taxonomy Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Mammalia Order: Rodentia Family: Muridae Genus: Rattus Species: norvegicus or rattus norvegicus Phylum Chordata Invertebrates Urochordates (tunicates) Cephalochordates (lanclets) All vertebrates Chordate Characteristics {Structures in embryo stage} 1. Notochord (gives name to phylum) 2. Dorsal, hollow nerve cord 3. Pharyngeal silts/pouches 4. Segmented body & Postanal tail Few notes on notochord Hollow tube between gut and neural tube Persists in adult of some invertebrate chordates and primitive vertebrates. Remnants only remain in material of invertebral disks in other vertebrates Fate of pharyngeal pouches in mammals Parts of face Muscles of mastication, facial expression Eustachian tubes Bones of middle ear thymus and parathyroid glands INVERTEBRATE CHORDATES Cephalochordates (lanclets) Urochordates (tunicates) Vertebrate Characteristics 1. Presence of notochord (at least in embryo) 2. Presence of a pharynx with slits in its wall (at least in embryo) 3. Occurrence of a dorsal tubular nervous system 4. Development of vertebrae VERTEBRATES Rattus...
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09 RAT ANATOMY 2007 - Rattus norvegicus Dissection Rat...

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