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History Test 4 Notes

History Test 4 Notes - NEW POLITICAL PARTIES 1 Jacksons...

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N EW P OLIT ICAL P ARTIES 1. Jackson’s policies created intense opposition and led to the rise of new political parties 2. Issues: a. Jackson – a polarizing figure upon which everyone had an opinion – for OR against b. Federal support for economic development – banks, etc. 3. Whigs (opponents of the monarchy in England called themselves the Whigs) a. Opposition party – saw Jackson as a royal brute b. Don’t like Jackson and his policies c. Support federal support of economic development d. Leader: Henry Clay – his American system is the party’s platform e. Other supporters i. Daniel Webster ii. John Calhoun (for a time because he hated Jackson) iii. Abraham Lincoln f. Tended to come from a profession – doctors, bankers, lawyers, well-educated g. Also included farmers who adjusted to the capitalist system h. Included contradictory elements like nationalist Webster with Calhoun i. Problems: i. Initially, they could only agree on their opposition to Jackson ii. Disagreed with glorification of the common man j. Favored orderly development under the guidance of the elite talent/education k. Tended to attract protestants 4. Democrats
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a. Party of Andrew Jackson b. Against federal government support of the economy (not opposed at a state level though) c. Tended to attract Catholics d. Favored state rights e. Disliked large business corporations f. Promoted freedom of economic opportunity g. Absolute political freedom for all white males h. Any ordinary man is capable of performing the duties of any public office i. “That government is best, which governs least” 5. Both parties worked hard to keep the issue of slavery out, focus on economic matters M ARTIN V AN B UREN 1. Election of 1836 a. Jefferson handpicked Buren and Democrats rallied behind him b. Whigs couldn’t unify and had several candidates running 2. The debt a. The national debt which Jefferson dedicated to paying off, in 1837, we paid off the debt b. How do we spend the surplus? 3. Van Buren and the Panic a. Panic of 1837 hit, and country went back into debt b. Van Buren didn’t do much about the Panic and it crippled his presidency i. Government had very little control over economy ii. Van Buren refused to undertake and government action to deal with the depression
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E LECTION OF 1840 1. Whig William Henry Harrison (69) vs. Democrat Martin Van Buren a. On a platform of Clay’s American system 2. The Whigs adopted the techniques of mass democracy a. Nominate a popular general – you can win b. “Tippecanoe and Tyler too” c. Portrayed Harrison as a common man who lived in a Log Cabin and drank cider i. Actually from a very distinguished family in VA ii. His father was the governor d. Portrayed Van Buren as an elitist 3. What the election demonstrated a. Mass democracy techniques used by Democrats in 1828 had now been accepted by the entire political system H ARRISON AND T YLER 1. Dividing the spoils a. Remove all current officers and replace them with Whigs 2. Harrison’s Speech a. Gave his speech in the rain b.
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