AP_US_Unit_7_1945-Present.ppt - Unit 7 AP US History Period...

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Unformatted text preview: Unit 7 AP US History Period 8 (1945-1980) Period 9 (1980-Present) This is the End! All You Need is APUSH! The Cold War [1945-1991]: An Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“ Iron Curtain” ] GOAL spread world-wide Communism METHODOLOGIES: 1. Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] US & the Western Democracies GOAL “ Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan] 2. Arms Race [nuclear escalation] 3. Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “ proxy wars” 4. Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Truman and The Cold War (19451952) At the heart of the tension was a fundamental difference in political systems America is a democracy that has a capitalist economic system, free elections and competing political parties In the U.S.S.R., the sole political party – the Communists – established a totalitarian regime with little or no rights for the citizens Post WWII America Pent up consumer demand (savings had increased during war, limit of consumer goods) and continued government projects, allowed US to avoid issues that led to depression The Servicemen’ s Readjustment Act of 1944 (GI Bill of Rights)-supported veterans transition into a peacetime economy, government paid for continued education, provided low interest, government backed loans to buy homes and farms and to start businesses-promoted economic expansion Baby Boom-explosion in marriages and births between 1945-1960 Suburban growth-need for housing resulted in construction boom-Levittown-17,000 mass-produced, low priced family homes on Long Island, NY (Led by William J. Levitt)-low interest rate (government insured) mortgages available-middle class moved to suburbs leaving cities to become increasingly poor Warmer climate, lower taxes, and economic opportunities in defense-related spending attracted many to the Sunbelt states (Florida to California), transfer of tax revenue and some power from Northeast and Midwest to South and West Postwar Politics Postwar Politics President Truman, moderate Democrat, attempted to carry on New Deal tradition Economic Program-in September 1945 Truman urged Congress to enact a series of progressive measures including a national health insurance, an increase in the minimum wage and a bill to commit the US government to maintaining full employment- Employment Act of 1946-created the Council of Economic Advisers to counsel both the president and Congress on economic welfare Inflation and Strikes-southern Democrats joined with Republicans (against Truman’ s wishes) in relaxing the controls of the Office of Price Administration (wartime price controls)-result was an inflation rate of 25% in first year and half after war; 1946-4.5 million workers went on strike (Truman took tough approach seizing mines and using soldiers to keep them operating) Postwar Politics Civil Rights-first modern president to challenge racial discrimination Committee on Civil Rights (1946), also strengthened the civil rights division in Justice Dept to aid the efforts of black leaders to end segregation in schools 1948-ordered the end of racial segregation in the departments of the federal government and all three branches of the armed forces (changed life on military bases) Urged Congress to create a Fair Employment Practices Commission (Southern Dems blocked legislation) 1946 mid-term elections-Republicans win majority in both House and Senate (voters unhappy with inflation and strikes) Republican dominated Congress propose Twenty-second Amendment-limit presidents to two terms-ratified in 1951 Taft-Hartley Act (1947)-congress overrode Truman’ s veto to pass pro-business, anti-union act: Outlawed the closed shop (shop requiring workers to join a union before being hired) Permitted states to pass “ right to work” laws outlawing the union shop (requiring union membership after being hired) Outlawed secondary boycotts (practice of several unions giving support to a striking union by joining a boycott of a company’ s products) Giving the president the power to invoke an 80 day cooling off period before a strike endangering the national safety could be called The Election of 1948 The Election of 1948 Democrats re-nominated Truman; Liberal Democrats broke away forming new Progressive Party and nominated former VP Henry Wallace; Southern Democrats broke away and created the State’ s Rights Party (Dixiecrats) and nominated J. Strom Thurman (of South Car) Republicans nominated Governor Thomas E. Dewey (again, confident of victory over non-popular Truman) Truman won with aggressive campaign attacking the “ do-nothin g ” Republican Congress The Fair Deal-ambitious reform program-urged congress to enact national health care insurance, federal aid to education, civil right legislation, funds for public housing and a new farm program-conservatives in congress managed to block almost all reform attempts, due to: Truman’ s political conflicts with Congress and the pressing foreign policy concerns of the Cold War The Cold War The Cold War (dominated international relation from the late 1940s to the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991-term first used by journalist Walter Lippman) US-Soviet Relations to 1945 Bolshevik Revolution (1917)-viewed as a threat to capitalistic countries, led to Red Scare (1919), US failed to Recognize Soviet Union until 1933, Non-aggression pact (1939) furthered suspicion, World War II brought together as Allies (of convenience not trust) ISSUE S Postwar Cooperation-The United Nations The General Assembly created to provide representation to all members nations, the 15 member Security Council was given the primary responsibility within the UN for maintaining international security (US, GB, Fr, Ch, SU-permanent members) Soviet Union and US supported creation of an Atomic Energy Commission, Soviet Union rejected the Baruch Plan (proposed by Bernard Baruch) for regulating atomic energy and eliminating atomic weapons Soviets declined invitation by US to join the World Bank (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development) created at the Bretton Woods Conference (1944)-purpose to fund the reconstruction of the “ wartorn” world Soviets joined Allies in the 1945-1946 Nuremberg trials Distrust Turns to Hostility Distrust Turns to Hostility 1946-Soviet forces remained in occupation of countries of central and Eastern Europe-results of “ free elections’ manipulated to support Communist candidates—Communist dictators installed from 46-48 in Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania-Soviet Satellites; US and British government view as violation of selfdetermination and democracy Division of Germany into Soviet, French, British, and US zones meant to be temporary—eastern zone under Soviet occupation evolved into a new Communist states-German Democratic Republic (Soviets wanted a weak Germany; forced to pay high reparations)-Tried to force US, Fr, GB to give up control of sections of Berlin (in East Germany) March 1946-Former British Prime Minister delivers “ Iron Curtain” speech with support of Truman (at event in Missouri)-called for a partnership by Western democracies to halt the expansion of communism Containment in Europe Containment Policy (1947)-proposed by General George Marshal (Sec of State), Dan Acheson (Undersecretary of State), and George F. Kennan Expert on Soviet Affairs wrote influential article, The Sources of Soviet Conduct( ) The Truman Doctrine / Marshall Plan The Truman Doctrine (March, 1947) Truman asked Congress to provide economic and military assistance ($400 million) to freed people of Turkey and Greece against totalitarian regimes--implemented in response to Communist-led uprising against the government in Greece and Soviet demand for some control of Turkey’ s Dardanelles The Marshall Plan-response to post war condition of Europe June, 1947-George Marshall outlined program of US economic aid to help the nations of Europe revive their economies (and strengthen democratic nations)-December 1947-Truman submits to congress a $17 billion European Recovery Program-approved for distribution to the countries of Western Europe over a four-year period (also offered to Soviet Union and Eastern Europe) Effects of Marshall Plan: Western Europe achieved self-sustained growth by the 1950s and ended real threat of Communist political successes in that region Bolstered US prosperity by greatly increasing US exports to Europe Deepened rift between non-Communist West and Communist East First Major Crisis of Cold War The Berlin Airlift-First Major Crisis of Cold War June 1948-Soviets cut off all access by land to Berlin, instead of using force to open roads or withdrawing from Berlin ordered US planes to fly in supplies to the people of West Berlin (also sent 60 bombers to bases in England) continued airlift until May 1949-Stalin finally opened up the highways to Berlin Long term consequence-creation of Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany-US Ally) and German Democratic Republic (East Germany-Soviet Satellite) National Security NATO and National Security 1949-Senate gave consent to join military defense pact to protect Western Europe-North Atlantic Treaty Organization-General Eisenhower selected as NATO’ s first Supreme Commander (stationed US troops throughout Europe) S Soviet Union responded by forming Warsaw Pact in 1955 National Security Act (1947)-effort to modernize military capability: Replaced the War Department with a centralized Department of Defense to coordinate the operation of the Armed Forces Created the National Security Council (NSC) to coordinate the making of foreign policy in the Cold War Created the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to employ spies to gather information on foreign governments 1948-permanent peace time draft instituted Atomic Weapons-Arms Race (1945-1949—US only nation to weapons, developed long range bombers to deliver them) have Atomic 1949-Soviet Union tested first atomic bomb, led US to develop (1952) the Hydrogen Bomb (H-Bomb was a thousand times more powerful than bomb dropped on Hiroshima) National Security Council sent secret report to congress calling for: quadrupling of defense spending, formation of alliance with non-Communists countries around the world, effort to convince American public than threat of Soviets was real and justified build up of defense NATO WARSAW NEUTRAL Cold War in Asia Cold War in Asia Japan-solely under control of US, General Douglas MacArthur led reconstruction effort-new constitution (May, 1947) set up a parliamentary democracy (retained Emperor Hirohito (ceremonial head) and limited military capability) US-Japanese Security Treaty-occupation ended in 1951, Japan agreed to surrender claims to Korea and island in the Pacific, allowed US to remain in military bases in Japan for protection against threat of Communism Philippines (became independent on July 4, 1946-US retained naval and air bases throughout Cold War) China-during WWII US provide massive military aid to Chiang Kai-Shek (Nationalist or Koumintang Party) with end of war civil war returned—Chiang’ s Nationalists threatened by Chinese Communists (Mao Zedong) who appealed to millions of poor landless peasants US Policy-George Marshal sent in 1946 to negotiate an end to civil war, his compromise was unsuccessful—by 1947 Chiang ’ s armies in retreat-Truman sends $400 million in aid (80% fell into Communist hands) By 1949 all of mainland China fell to Communist forces-Mao Zedong established the People’ s Republic of China (US failed to recognize until 1979)-1950-Mao and Stalin signed Sino-Soviet Pact; Chiang and Nationalists retreated to Formosa (Taiwan) established government claiming to be the only legitimate government for China MAO KaiShek The Korean War The Korean War Korea had been divided along 38th parallel-Soviets controlled north, US controlled south 1949-North controlled by Communist Kim Il Sung and South controlled by conservative nationalist Syngman Rhee June 25, 1950-North Korea invaded South Korea Truman called for special session of the UN Security Council (taking advantage of temporary Soviet boycott of UN) which authorized a UN force to defend South Korea (US troops (led by General Douglas MacArthur) made large majority of forceUS did not declare war, was a police action) North Korean army pushed to tip of peninsula; MacArthur responded with amphibious assault at Inchon behind the north Korean lines, UN forces advanced to near the Chinese border-November 1950 Chinese troops crossed border supporting N. Korea and forced UN forces out of N. Korea MacArthur publicly called for increase of war effort, including bombing and invasion of mainland China (went against Truman’ s containment and limited war)-April 1951-Truman recalled MacArthur for insubordination-MacArthur returned to a hero’ s welcome, Truman and Democrats viewed as appeasers Peace talks began in July 1951 (police action continued for two years costing 54,000 American lives), armistice finally signed in 1953 (under Eisenhower) Political Consequences: Democrats looked at Korean War/Containment as a success; Republicans weren’ t satisfied-characterized Truman and Dems as “ soft on Communism” (“ Dean Acheson’ s (new Sec of State) Cowardly College of Communist Containment” ) The Shifting Map of Korea [1950-1953] The Second Red Scare The Second Red Scare Security and Civil Rights 1947-Truman set up Loyalty Review Board to investigate background of more than 3 million federal employees (19471951)-thousands resigned or lost job 1950-McCarren Internal Security Act-over Truman’ s veto, Congress passed act that made it unlawful to advocate or support the establishment of a totalitarian government, restricted the employment and travel of those joining the Communist front organizations, and authorized the creation of detention camps for subversives Smith Act (1940)-made it illegal to advocate or teach the overthrow of the government by force or to belong to an organization with this objective 1951-Dennis et al. v. United StatesSC upheld the constitutionality of the Smith Act (members of Communist party jailed) The Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)-originally established in 1939 to seek out Nazis, was reactivated in the postwar years to find Communists (looked beyond government officials—Boy Scouts, Hollywood actors, writers, etc) American Civil Liberties Union and others argued these measure were violation of First Amendment The “ Blacklist Ten” (And two lawyers) Espionage Cases-McCarthyism Espionage Cases Hiss Case-testimony of Whittaker Chambers (confessed Communist) along with investigative work of California congressmen Richard Nixon led to trial of Alger Hiss (official in State Department, assisted FDR at Yalta)-Hill denied being a Communist-1950 was convicted of perjury and sent to prison Rosenberg Case-Spy ring traced to Julius and Ethel Rosenberg (helped pass secrets of atomic bomb to Soviets)1951 convicted of treason and executed in 1953 Nixon examines microfilm in Hiss case The Rosenbergs were the first U.S. citizens executed for espionage Rise of Joseph McCarthy (Rep senator from Wisconsin, in reelection campaign charged that 205 Communists still worked at the State Department (1950)) power based on people fear of accusation, used stream of unsupported accusations about Communists in government to keep the media focus on himself and the discredit the Truman administration 1954-Senate committee held televised hearings on Communist infiltration in the army, McCarthy seen as a “ bully” and claims seen as unsupported December-Republicans joined Democrats in censure of McCarthy and his “ witch-hunt” (Three years later McCarthy died) The Eisenhower Years, 19521960 The Election of 1952 (“ I Like Ike” ) – Truman’ s chances for reelection in 1952 unlikely (due to Red Scare, Stalemate in Korea, loss of China, scandals surrounding Truman’ s advisers)-Truman retires to private life in Missouri Republicans-nominated war hero, Dwight Eisenhower (satisfied conservatives who wanted Senator (OH) Robert Taft by making Senator (CA) Richard Nixon running mate) and Democrats nominated Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson Eisenhower-Nixon ticket won with promise to go to Korea and end the war Nixon’ s TV persona (Checkers speech-in response to accusation of using funds and receiving gifts, refused to return family dog Checkers-a gift) • • • One potential disaster for Ike was his running mate’s alleged “slush fund” Richard Nixon responded by going on T.V. and delivering an emotional speech denying charges but admitting to accepting one gift for his children – a dog named Checkers The “Checkers speech” saved the ticket Eisenhower’ s Domestic Policies Eisenhower’ s Domestic Policies Modern Republicanism-believer in delegating authority (filled cabinet with successful corporate executives-Secretary of Defense was Charles Wilson, former head of GM) A fiscal conservative whose first priority was a balanced budget, accepted some New Deal programs as necessary (expanded Social Security, raised minimum wage, continued public housing projects) 1953-created the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) under Oveta Culp Hobby (first woman in a Republican cabinet), initiated a soilbank program to decrease production for farmers keeping prices high 1956-Highway Act-authorized the construction of 42,000 miles of interstate highways linking all of the nation’ s major cities Prosperity-country enjoyed a steady growth rate, inflation averaged 1.5%, deficits fell in relation to the national wealth, per-capita disposable income more than tripled, highest standard of living in the world Anytown, USA “Our new roads, with their ancillaries, the motels, filling stations, and restaurants advertising eats, have made it possible for you to drive from Brooklyn to Los Angeles without a change of diet, scenery, or culture.” John Keats, The Insolent Chariots 1958 Election of 1956 Eisenhower-Nixon ticket defeated Adlai Stevenson again (even though Eisenhower had suffered a heart attack in ‘ 55 and undergone surgery in ‘ 56) Democrats gained control of both Senate and House Popular Culture in the 1950s Consumer Culture and Conformity Television-by 1961 there were 55 million TV sets (1:3.3 Americans), programming in the fifties provided by 3 networks (common content for common culture-leads to conformity) Advertising-aggressive advertising by name brands promoted common material wants, introduction of suburban shopping centers and the plastic credit cards provided quick means of satisfying wants Paperbacks and records-paperbacks (innovation in ‘ 50s) selling almost a million a day by 1960, Popular music revolutionized by long-playing (LP) record albums (explosion of rock and roll (combination of African American rhythm and blues with white country music)-Elvis Presley) Corporate America-conglomerates with diversified holdings began to dominate industry (for the first time more Americans held white-collar jobs) The Organization of Man (1956-William Whyte)-documented the loss of individuality and the conformity to the “ corporate team” AF of L and CIO merged in 1955-became more powerful and conservative as blue-collar workers began to enjoy middle class incomes 1955-Opening of Disney Land Religion-organized religion expanded after WWII- Catholic, Protestant, Jew (1955-Will Herberg)-commented on the new religious tolerance of the time Women’ s Roles-traditional view of a woman’ s role as caring for home and children reaffirmed in the mass media, baby-boom, and growth of suburban homes Baby and Child Care (1946-Dr. Benjamin Spock)-reaffirmed this importance Social Critics The Lonely Crowd (1958-Harvard Sociologist David Riesman)-criticized the replacement of “ inner-directed” individuals in society with “ other-directed” conformists The Affluent Society (1958-Economists John Kenneth Galbraith)-wrote about ...
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