Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon paper

Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon paper - Tip of the Tongue...

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Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon Jeannine Soto JAS3657 April 23, 2007 Introduction to Cognitive Psychology 305 Dr. Reeves
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Tip of the Tongue You’re sitting at the table with a friend, who is trying to solve a crossword puzzle. One of the clues stumps her and she turns to you for help. She asks for an eight-letter word that means to “renounce a throne”. You know the answer is “abdicate”, yet you are unable to come up with the word. This is a tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) state, which is basically not being able to say a word, despite the feeling of knowing it, hence the phrase, “It’s on the tip of my tongue”. There are many theories on why TOT happens and how. Burke and Mackay were the first to bring up the partial activation theory as an alternative to Jones “blocking” hypothesis using the transmission deficit model (TD) as an explanation, stating that TOT occurs due to weak connections among stored sounds. This weak connection occurs between lexical nodes and phonological nodes that are described in Burke and Mackay’s node structure theory. The node structure theory and TD model both help explain how TOT occurs and its resolution by the use of two processes in word retrieval: the activation and priming of nodes. Node priming refers to a type of excitation that occurs between nodes in order to prepare them for activation. Node activation itself is considered to be “all or none” function that happens when node priming surpasses the word retrieval threshold. . Another theory as to why TOT occurs is Jones “blocking” hypothesis, which states that phonologically similar words interfere with retrieval of the “target” word. In the aforementioned crossword puzzle scenario, if your friend read you the clue and then
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maybe said “arrogant”, the similarity between words would make a TOT state arise and prevent you from retrieving the target word. This paper analyzes three different studies that all support the partial activation theory as an explanation to TOT instead of the blocking theory and also sheds light on phonological cues, rather than semantic cues, as the way words are retrieved. The three cases all conduct a variety of experiments dealing with the partial activation theory vs. the blocking hypothesis and provide both semantic and phonological cues In 2003, Abrams, White, and Eitel conducted a series of experiments in order see what effects the first letter, specific syllables, and the first phoneme vs. the first syllable on TOT resolution. Abrams, White, and Eitel used 60 native English speaking participants from an introductory psychology class for their first two experiments and 87 native English speaking undergraduates from the same source as the previous experiments for the third experiment. Experiment 1 dealt with the question of whether primes with the first letter as the
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2008 for the course PSY 305 taught by Professor Reeves during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon paper - Tip of the Tongue...

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