Chapter 1_sociology review guide.doc.pdf - Chapter 1 The Sociological Perspective and Research Study guide These come from the PowerPoints and the

Chapter 1_sociology review guide.doc.pdf - Chapter 1 The...

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Chapter 1 – The Sociological Perspective and Research - Study guide These come from the PowerPoints and the E-text You should be familiar with the following terms and concepts, and be able to apply them to examples: - The difference between Psychology and Sociology Sociology focuses on the systematic study of patterns. The “truth” behind common assumptions Psychology focuses on how the brain works - Why Study Sociology? Draws attention to social crisis Explains assumptions Allows us to notice diversity Allows us to see connection between micro and macro - Early Thinkers: A Concern with Social Order and Stability August Comte: founder of sociology began to analyze the bases of social order. He stressed the scientific method should be applied to the study of society, he did not apply it himself. Herbert Spencer: “survival of the fittest” Karm Marx: believed that the roots of human misery lay in class conflict, the exploitation of workers by those who own the means of production. Social change, in the form of the workers overthrowing the capitalists was inevitable. Did not consider himself a sociologist. Emile Durkheim: comparison of sudicde rates in different countries. Identified key role of social integration in social life. Max Weber: used cross-cultural and historical materials to trace the causes of social change and to determine how social groups affect people’s orientations to life W.E.B Du Bois studied relations between African Americans and whites. Combined role of academic sociologist with that of social reformer. Jane Addams: received nobel prize for peace. Worked on behalf of poor immigrants. Leader in women’s rights and had center for immigrants in Chicago C.Wright Mills: analysis of the role of power elite on U.S. society George Herbert Mead: founder of symbolic interactionism. - The Beginnings of Sociology in the United States Began around 1800s. Around industrial revolution Social observers began to use scientific menthods to test their ideas - Macro vs. Micro Analysis
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