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Concepts student - Concepts Categories-categorization as a...

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Concepts & Categories -- categorization as a cognitive “shorthand” which allows inferences about things based on their category membership --psychologists interested in how people represent concepts --type (category) vs. token (individual exemplar) distinction 1.3 sides, vertices 2. Strawberries 3. apples 4. bananas 5. grapes 6. pineapples 7. orange 8. cherries 9. kiwi 10. grapefruit I. Feature-Based Theories A. Classical Theory 1. Necessary & Jointly Sufficient Features a. Necessary features : traits something MUST have to be in the category e.g., 3 sides for TRIANGLE b. Jointly Sufficient features : If an exemplar has all of the J & S features, then it must be within the category: 3 straight sides closed figure 3 angles Angles total 180 degrees THEN, must be a triangle
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2. Implicit Assumptions : -- firm category boundaries (either in or out of the category) -- All members of a category are equal , since all meet the N & JS criteria
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B. Family Resemblance Theory (Rosch) --Wittgenstein asked, but what are the N & JS features for GAME? 1. Graded Structure a. Prototype : the “best example” of a category, around which it is structured b. Peripheral Members : exemplars which are not considered “good” members of the category We often use linguistic hedges to refer to peripheral members, Technically , a whale is a mammal. Loosely speaking , a tomato is a vegetable. c. Rosch (1975) asked subjects to rate “goodness-of- example” exemplars under 6 superordinate categories: furniture, vehicle, fruit, weapon, vegetable, clothing Rank ordered 20 exemplars from each category Furniture Vehicle Fruit 1 Chair Car Orange 2 Sofa Truck Apple 3 Table Bus Banana 4 Dresser Motorcycle Peach 5 Desk Train Pear 10 Piano
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