Attention (student) - ATTENTION -the concentration of...

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ATTENTION --“ the concentration of mental effort on sensory or mental events (Solso, 1988) -- separating a signal from background “noise” (Anderson, 1990) I. Attentional Basics A. Techniques for Studying Attention 1. D______________________ : each of 2 messages piped to separate ears. Subject can either pay attention to 1 message: a. S__________ Attention task : pay attention to one message, & ignore other ( Un/Attended messages ) or to 2 messages: b. D____________ Attention task : monitor two messages simultaneously -- issue of _______________ while _____________ 2 . S_______________ : in a dichotic listening task, subject is asked to repeat aloud one (or both) message/s 3. Visual Tasks : Can also use Selective or Divided Visual Attention tasks (or combination of the two): Neisser & Becklen (1975) found divided attention led to 8x the error rate as selective attention in a visual task. 4. Significance? a. The best predictor of Israeli air force trainees’ performance in flight school was performance on a _____________________ listening task b. Best predictor of commercial drivers’ accident records was their performance on a _______________listening task (better even than a visual skills task; Mihal & Barett, 1976).
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B. Functions of Attention --cognitive, perceptual, behavioral 1. Functions of Attention : Initial perceptual experience may be quite rich; we then concentrate on items of most use to us (e.g., report which row in Sperling iconic memory experiment) 2. Perceptual Ehancement : attention highlights or enhances a stimulus, to distinguish it from background noise (e.g., use attention to enhance image of friend in a crowd) 3. Binding : Combine perceptual information into a unitary percept (e.g., color + shape) 4. Sustaining Attention/Behavior : maintain concentration and an action plan in the face of distractions (ADHD causes disturbances here) 5. Action Selection : Limited capacity in both cognitive and behavioral abilities; requires choice of which actions to initiate, and in what order II. Selective Attention: A. Broadbent’s Filter Model 1. Claims : a. Limited capacity system: there is a single sensory channel through which information must pass b. a Bottleneck occurs after sensory/physical processing of the stimulus, but: c. prior to _______________________ or pattern recognition (early selection) d. An unattended message can be recognized only if attention is switched before it fades from sensory store, and: e. Switching attention itself requires resources 2. Evidence : a. Cherry (1953) asked subjects to shadow one message in a selective listening task. Shadowing was in a monotone, could not report what they had heard in the unattended message (even backward speech, or
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change to a different language). However, Ss did
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2008 for the course PSY 305 taught by Professor Reeves during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Attention (student) - ATTENTION -the concentration of...

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