Cumulative PSYC 101 Review

Cumulative PSYC 101 Review - Cumulative Psychology 101...

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Cumulative Psychology 101 Review Book: Psychology: Themes & Variations (7 th ed.) by Wayne Weiten Professor: Wiss CHAPTER 1: The Evolution of Psychology Philosophy and Physiology Wilhelm Wundt: o Made psychology an independent discipline o Established first laboratory in 1879 in Germany Structuralism: o Edward Titchener o Task of psychology to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related o Mainly concerned with sensation and perception in vision, hearing, and touch o Method of introspection: careful, systematic observation of one’s own conscious experience Functionalism: o William James o Psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure o Principles of Psychology (1890) o Natural selection: inherited characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be “selected” over time o Consciousness consists of a continuous flow of thoughts Behaviorism: o Early 1900s
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o John B. Watson o Psychology should study only observable behavior and abandon the study of consciousness altogether o Nature vs. nurture: Watson argued that only environment controls behavior Sigmund Freud o Psychoanalysis: attempt to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior o Concept of the unconscious: contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior B. F. Skinner (1950s) o Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes o Argued that free will is an illusion—behavior is determined in predictable ways by lawful principles, controlled by external stimuli of our environment Humanism o Emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth o Carl Rogers o Abraham Maslow Psychology becomes a profession: o Applied Psychology: concerned with everyday, practical problems o Clinical Psychology: concerned with the diagnoses and treatment of psychological problems and disorders Cognition: o The mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge
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o Cognitive perspective: people’s mental processes influence how they behave o Biological perspective: behavior can be explained in terms of the bodily structures and biochemical processes Increased interest in cultural diversity: how culture colors one’s view of the world Evolutionary Psychology: o Examines behavior processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations o Natural selection Psychology today: o The science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie behavior, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of
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This note was uploaded on 11/17/2008 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Loeb during the Spring '08 term at UNC.

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Cumulative PSYC 101 Review - Cumulative Psychology 101...

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