Language Adv. (studt) - LANGUAGE Social Function Pragmatics...

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Meaning (Lexical Entries)-Words function as symbols Grammar- Morphemes- the smallest meaningful units of language- Free and Bound (-ing, - ed, etc) i.e.- -s at the end of a word, -ing, un- Phonology- the study of phonemes Phonemes- individual speech sounds- ex. Dictionary pronunciation guides LANGUAGE Social Function Cognitive Rule Meaning Grammar Sound Propositions Lexical Entries (words) Syntax Morphology Phonology Phonetics Pragmatics Inflection
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LANGUAGE I. Levels of Language Language is a rule-governed skill, with several levels of analysis which operate in both Production and Comprehension . A. Communications System 1. Pragmatics: rules of conversation --answer question on same topic --courtesy questions --social conventions --Gricean implicatures (e.g., "Customers wearing shorts are not allowed") B. Cognitive Structure 1. Semantics : the meaning of language --individual words represent objects, events ( Reference ) --sentences expressed propositionally 2. Syntax : ability to string words together into legal sentences within a language --permissible sentence frame 3. Morphology : the study of morphemes & how used -- Morphemes : the smallest meaningful units of language. Free morphemes stand alone; words such as daughter, swim, lone, fair, is b. Bound morphemes : are appended to words (as prefixes, suffixes), to alter or accent a word's meaning e.g., a- in alone -ly in lonely
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-s in daughters -ing in swimming un- in unfair 4a. Phonology : the study of phonemes and rules for combination of phonemes --No obstruction of airflow with vowels -- Phonemes : individual sounds of language, e.g., /sh/, /a/, /ah/, /p/ --legal rules for combination of phonemes in a language: thax vs. thzsw --to pluralize words: Word ends with: Plural is : Examples: /s z c j z/ /z/ places, cabbages /p t k f/ /s/ masks, laughs other sounds /z/ trolls, cabs 4b. Phonetics : the study of the articulation features of phonemes a. Place of articulation : bilabial (two lips together): p, b, m dental (tongue against teeth): th labiodental (bottom lip against top front teeth): f, v glottal (glottis in throat): h alveolar (tongue against alveolar ridge of gums just behind front teeth): t, d, s, z, n, l, r
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palatal : tongue against hard palate in roof of mouth just behind alveolar ridge): s , z , c , j , y velar (tongue against soft palate in rear of mouth): g, k b. Manner of articulation : stops (complete closure at a point in articulation): p, b, t, d, k, g fricatives (sustained turbulence or vibration): f, v, th, s, z, h, s , z affricatives (complete closure followed by a rush of air through constriction): c , j nasals (closure of mouth + opening of nasal passage to let air through): m, n, ng laterals (shaping tongue so main opening is at sides of tongue): l semivowels (shaping tongue so main opening is in middle of tongue): w, r, y c. Voiced or not : do vocal cords vibrate (or not): z ap” vs. “ s ap”
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5. Inflection: the intonation, stress, and rhythm (prosody) of speech --e.g., child-directed speech sarcasm lilting up at end of a question (or even at end of a statement--think Fargo ) Broca’s area damaged then sentences are hard to make, the opposite side messes up emotions and inflection II. Lexical Processing A.
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