Mental Imagery (student)

Mental Imagery (student) - MENTAL IMAGERY I Dual-Coding...

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MENTAL IMAGERY I. Dual-Coding Hypothesis: we think in a spatial or verbal way (Paivio) A. Theoretical Claims 1. Mental representations can be either in a verbal or visual code. 2. Memory for items is best if BOTH codes/forms are accessed. 3. The two codes have different properties. e.g., representation of SIZE is visual; representation of phonemes in verbal code B. Evidence 1. High Imageability words better remembered (Paivio, 1965). 2. Kosslyn (1976) used a sentence verification task for High & Low Association traits, respectively: Cats have claws. T Cats have a head. T Subjects were faster to verify the High Associative item (“claws”), UNLESS asked to use imagery—then, verification of Low Associative (but visually prevalent) feature—“head”— was verified faster.
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Paivio presented pairs of either Words or Pictures. Relative size was either Congruent (e.g., Whale Lobster ), or Incongruent ( Whale Lobster ). Two measures: --Pronouncability judgments --Size judgments FINDINGS : --Pronouncability judgments fastest for words; --Size judgments fastest with Congruent pictures --Congruency had no impact on size judgments when Words presented II. Quasi-Picture Theory (Shepard, Kosslyn, Finke) --mental images are Analog/ Geometric representations of visual stimuli, which are “functional isomorphs” to Euclidean space (Shepard) --visual imaging is functionally equivalent to seeing A. Theoretical Claims (& Finke’s Principles ) 1. Spatial Equivalence : represent like pictures (not like sentences). Location, size, and distance are arranged in an image as they are in physical space. --spatial relations among objects in an array are
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Mental Imagery (student) - MENTAL IMAGERY I Dual-Coding...

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