PSYCH 1X03 – Exam Summary CHAPTER 1 – RESEARCH METHODS: RESEARCH METHODS I: Scientific Method: - 7 steps; collecting/analyzing data while minimizing bias or conflicts. 1. Theory – a general set of ideas about how the world works. 2. Hypothesis – a testable statement guided by theories that make predictions between two variables in the theory. 3. Research Method – how the hypothesis is tested. 4. Collect Data – taking measurements of the outcomes of the test. 5. Analyze Data – discovering trends/relationships between the variables. 6. Report Findings – publishing articles in scholarly journals. 7. Revise Theories – including new information and revisions to theories (usually due to a paradigm shift). - Paradigm Shift – a dramatic change in the way we think. Hypothesis In-Depth: - Anecdotal Evidence – evidence gathered from others or self-experience. - Problems with Anecdotal Evidence: o Single experience might not properly represent the theory. o Personal experience might not represent others. o Cannot be sure about one factor affecting the results. - Experiment – scientific tool used to measure the effect of one variable on another. - Independent Variable – manipulated by the scientist. - Dependent Variable – observed by the scientist. - Experimenter usually controls the level of the independent variable; also measures this effect on the chosen measure of the independent variable. Control Groups: - Helps to further manipulate the independent variable while measuring the effects on the dependent variable. - Experimental Group – receives a manipulation of the independent variable. o Control group does not receive a manipulation. o Allows for one to compare the dependent variable for both groups. - Both groups should be as similar as possible in order to minimize difference; as a result, if a difference is found, then it is likely that the manipulation of the independent variable was the cause. Experimental Designs: Within-Subjects Design: - Manipulating the independent variable within each participant to minimize the effect of external variables on the dependent variable. - Minimizes the effect of subject differences on the dependent measure. - Can be time consuming and costly; practice effect may become an issue. o Practice Effect – improved performance over the course of an experiment due to becoming more experienced.
PSYCH 1X03 – Exam Summary Between-Subjects Design: - One group receives experimental manipulation, while the other is the control group. - Confounding Variable – a variable other than the independent variable that has an effect on the results. Sampling: - Results from specific group(s) of participants cannot be generalized to other groups. - Population – the people one is trying to learn about.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 61 pages?
- Winter '14