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dysphagia - jaw functioning adequately ❚ Can the patient...

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Dysphagia
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Questions What mechanisms are involved in a normal swallow? What causes swallowing disorders? How is swallowing assessed? What can be done to help people with dysphagia swallow better?
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Critical terms Dysphagia - An inability to swallow Aspiration
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The Normal Swallow 4 stages Anticipatory Oral Pharyngeal Esophageal
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Anticipatory Stage
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Oral Stage Food is chewed Sensory information Tongue pushes the bolus Bolus passes
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Pharyngeal stage Sensory information Velum - Larynx - Epiglottis - Pharyngeal peristalsis - Upper esophageal sphincter -
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Esophageal Stage Larynx - Upper esophageal sphincter -
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Causes of Dysphagia in Adults CVA Brainstem Stroke Traumatic Brain Injury Dementia Neuromuscular Disease
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Assessment Questions Are the muscles of the tongue, lips, and
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Unformatted text preview: jaw functioning adequately? ❚ Can the patient elevate the larynx? ❚ Can the patient feed himself? ❚ What foods can the patient eat safely? Assessment Procedures ❚ Case History ❚ Current Medical Status Noninstrumental Clinical Exam ❚ Bedside Clinical Assessment Instrumental Assessment ❚ Modified Barium Swallow ❚ Videoendoscopy Treatment ❚ Positioning ❚ Environmental modifications ❚ Special spoons or cups ❚ Change the consistency or temperature of the food ❚ Teach new swallowing patterns Dysphagia in Children ❚ Prematurity ❚ Cerebral Palsy ❚ Developmental Disabilities Review ❚ Stages of swallowing ❚ Dysphagia ❚ Bolus ❚ Causes of dysphagia in adults and children ❚ Assessment techniques ❚ Intervention techniques...
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