Africa Midterm study guide

Africa Midterm study guide - Early Stone Age: beg ~2.2 MYA...

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Early Stone Age: beg ~2.2 MYA - H. habilis, H. erectus, etc. -earliest archaeological sites: Rift Valley -Lucy -stone tools: Olduwan choppers (5 MYA to 2.5-2 MYA; 2.0-.5 MYA in S. Africa) -(earlier stone tools are not in the archaeological record, since only stone tools preserve) (Phillipson ch. 2) -Olduwan found in Ethiopia & Kenya 2.5-2 MYA (Phillipson ch. 2) -made of quartz in S. Africa, igneous rock at Olduvai Gorge, limestone in Ethiopia, and everywhere else, mostly chert -expediently constructed -absence of standardization (class; Phillipson ch.2) -used for cutting meat, wood, bone; grubbing roots & tubers; producing wooden tools (Phillipson ch. 2); phytolith remains on chopper edges => used for processing plants & wood, not just meat (class) -although, flakes probably used more often than choppers, being unifacial and sharp -Homo hand better adapted than contemporary Australopithecines to make Olduwan stone tools (class; Phillipson ch. 2) -evidence at Koobi Fora & Olduvai of butchery (Phillipson ch. 2) -evidence of early fire use & gradual taming, esp. in S. Africa (Phillipson, ch. 2) -Chesowanja (Kenya): domesticated fire? 4 MYA -Chalkoutien: domesticated fire 500,000 BP -Acheulean hand ax (1.6 MYA to 250,000 BP) (class; Phillipson ch. 3) -intrusion into Olduwan tradition, not a development (Phillipson, ch. 3) -indicates modern human population (class); hominids responsible were all members of Homo (Phillipson ch. 3) -earlier, made by H. erectus/H. ergaster , later made by H. heidelbergensis … two basic stages are apparent, may be related to hominid evolution (Phillipson, ch. 3) -found in most parts of Africa, not West, not Congo basin (Phillipson ch. 3) -goes no further East than China, where they have bamboo -pear-shaped, biconvex (class; Phillipson ch. 3) -cleavers: straight or transverse cutting edge instead of point (Phillipson ch. 3) -relative standardization of Acheulean type (class; Phillipson ch. 3) -implies communication, and also preferential right-handedness (Phillipson, ch. 3) -range in composition & artifact style in E. Africa suggests differences in skill/preference of toolmakers & intended use of artifact, although most variation due to raw material availability (Phillipson ch. 3) -probably used for purposes other than axing (or cleaving); handaxes are good for butchery, weaponry, and other things (Phillipson ch. 3); used as a hand-bolt? (class) -many in East Africa made from stone carried from far away—a bag for carrying was probably invented (Phillipson, ch. 3) -Toth & Schick infer that this has meaningful implications regarding cognition, arguing that communication would have been needed to teach Acheulean skills, and that this required the development of the ability to seek acute angles and reason symmetrically
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Middle Stone Age: beg. 200,000-120,000 BP -least well-defined period in African history -defined by what it does not have: art . (contested—ex, bone whistle at Haua Fteah, dated at least 60,000 BP; one shell bead at Blombos Cave, Ethiopia from MSA… still, no objects with decoration) (class; Leakey video mentions Blombos Cave also) -archaic & modern humans in close association (class) but mostly archaic forms (Leakey video) -first modern humans found in this period, Klasies River mouth (S. Africa) (100,000-60,000 BP?)
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Africa Midterm study guide - Early Stone Age: beg ~2.2 MYA...

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