Hist 1910- Midterm Study Guide

Hist 1910- Midterm Study Guide - History Prelim 1 Study...

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History Prelim 1 Study Guide Qing dynasty – 1644-1912 founded by Manchus. They were never over 2% of Chinese population. Bureaucracy was multi-dimensional and complex. Hegemony- which was dominance won through combination of coercion and consent. The dynasty was able to give Confucianism, the calendar, similar language which shows proof on Control in countries like Vietnam. Tributary system - it was the system where the countries surrounding China had to pay tribute to China for protection. China was the central kingdom, son of heaven was the emperor. Japan never paid tribute. Tributary trade system- consisted of 3 parts. Two way exchange of formal tribute submitted by mission and gifts bestowed by the imperial center. Licensed trade in Peking Assembly Hall by limited groups and merchant allowed to accompany a mission and frontier trade between merchants and Chinas land frontiers in specific Chinese ports. Korea had to go through Shanghai. Tribute transaction here was largely one of selling and purchasing and tribute exchange seen as commercial transaction. Unfair to tributary groups because China gave paper money as gifts which depressed value of tribute goods. Office of Overland Border Affairs- was not ministry of foreign affairs but dealt with the same issue. Manchu set it up to deal with foreign areas like Russia, Mongol, Tibet and Turkestan. Made sure they knew everything about the culture of the people they were trying to incorporate into their society. They learned the way of the people and made it work. Made by the Manchus. Ministry of Rituals- was one of the six ministries. It was half Chinese and half Manchu. It was in charge of costumes, and calendar, cultural practices Confucianism and Buddhism. In charge of the tributary ceremonies and such for East Asia and SEA. Vietnam, Cambodia, Korea, Ruykhu, Thailand. Commercial relationships with other Asian countries were managed by the Ministry of Rituals Canton System- System ran by the Chinese that allowed foreigners to only trade in Guangzhou and no other areas outside of the city. It kept foreigners away from main China as well as kept them in check. Foreigners could not deal with officials but only with local merchants, no free trade. Qing sponsored monopoly. Opium War- 1839-42 War between Britain and China over the trade of illegal opium into China. Opium was traded 600,000 lbs/yr to 6 million, and 900 million Spanish dollars per yr to 40 million by late 1830s. Opium was used to pay for trade, which shifted the balance of payments. Making Opium very available and making China loses money rather than make money due to Chinese dependence on the drug. China cared too much about North problems due to 1681-1832 peace in maritime, did not pay attention to Guangzhou, Britain could no longer stand Chinese arrogance.
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