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Study Guide for Prelim 1 in BIOG 1109

Study Guide for Prelim 1 in BIOG 1109 - Study Guide for...

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Study Guide for Prelim 1 in BIOG 1109 1. Know the levels of organization used in Biology [e.g. see Figure 1.1 in your text] Note the hierarchal organization of the levels Biosphere Ecosystem (Abiotic and Biotic) Community Populations Organism Organ systems Organs Tissues Cells Organelles Atoms & Molecules 2. How does the position in the hierarchy relate to size & abundance of each level. The number of representatives goes up as you move towards the top [e.g. biosphere] of the hierarchy 3. Know how to apply the proper use of each of the following terms that help to define the scope of biology. (For example, you may be given an example where you are asked which of these terms would be used to “define” the case presented) The Biosphere is the thin layer of life that surrounds Earth which include oceans, land and lower atmosphere. An ecosystem consists of all the organisms living in a particular area as well as the non-living environmental components. Energy flow is from sun-producer- consumer-decomposer (heat) All the species populations in an ecosystem make up a community. A population consists of a group of individuals of a species An individual living entity is an organism . 4. Understand the application of Inductive Reasoning versus Deductive Reasoning Inductive reasoning- Make a series of observations about the natural world drawing a conclusion based on the observations. Researching organisms, conclude all organism are made of cells. Describing Deductive reasoning- from the general to the specific, all organisms are made of cells so since human is organism, it is made of cells. Explaining 5. What different Scientific Methods were presented in class. Know what they are and how they are practiced. In discovery science, researchers describe some aspect of the world and use inductive reasoning to draw general conclusions. In hypothesis-based science, researchers attempt to explain observations by testing hypotheses. o In testing hypotheses , use of control groups and experimental groups helps to control variables o Deductions lead to predictions, then tests to see if a hypothesis is falsifiable 6. What is Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by Natural Selection ~ know how & why Descent with Modification and Natural Selection relate to this theory.
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Charles Darwin (Figure 1.6A) synthesized theory of evolution by Natural Selection. All organisms have adaptations that evolved by means of Natural Selection (Figure 1.6C) o Two observations- individual variation and overproduction and competition- which will cause a population to compete. Inference- unequal reproduction success. o Descent with modification Evolutionary adaptation- the accumulation of favorable adaptations in a population over time.
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