ThePrelim2ReviewGuide for BioG 1109

ThePrelim2ReviewGuide for BioG 1109 - I. READ ALL the...

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I. READ ALL the assigned Introductory Chapter Essays You WILL be given one intro essay question/chapter. Ch 18 lecture topics ~ Intro essay 1.7 species known, 1.3 are animals. Duck-billed platypus who has hair and milk is a mammal due to hat trait even though it looks like a duck and lays eggs. Platypus’ bill has a larger purpose as a sensory organ to find locate food while the duck uses it only to dig. Marsupials, where the young grows up in the pouch used to live in other continents but could not compete with other mammals except in Australia. Animalia is 35 phyla. 1. Taxonomic groups covered on this exam include [know major traits and phylogenetic relationships among the following]~ 2. Make sure you remember analogy versus homology and be able to apply the use of these words:=D Homology - reflects common ancestry. Birds share with crocodilians and some extinct dinosaurs nest building, acoustic communication among parents and young, and other aspects of complex parental care… homologies Analogy – convergent evolution and function—think wings of birds and bats, white fur of some cats and bears. 3. Know the key characteristics of the above groups [e.g. what makes a tetrapod a tetrapod, what & who is an amniote? What do chordates share in common? Tetrapods are four limbed bony creatures Amniotes are reptiles and mammals, have a terrestrially adapted shelled egg, internal fertilization, and an integument that is less leaky than that of amphibians Chordates all share dorsal hollow nerve, a notochord, pharyngeal slit, post-anal tail, and body segmentation. 4. What is ectothermy? What is endothermy? Which groups have which? What traits evolved as tetrapods gained more independence from an aquatic life-style? Which group(s) do you see the transition of traits supporting life on land? Ectothermy- cold-blooded, get heat externally- non-bird reptiles Endothermy- metabolically produce body heat- dinosaurs, birds and mammals Early Tetrapods- plementing gills for gas exchange, and sturdy muscular fins supporting extension of the skeleton for paddling and crawling through dense vegetation at water’s end, definitive tongue, metamorphis to adulthood on land, and larvae has to be born in water from early lungfish Frogs show a transition of traits supporting life on land. 5. What are the definitive characteristics of early tetrapods and modern amphibians? Early tetrapods had plementing gills for gas exchange, and sturdy muscular fins supporting extension of the skeleton for paddling and crawling through dense vegetation at water’s end. Amphibians were specialized in their land environment, four legs, air-breathing lungs 6. Know examples from major placental mammal groups “ orders” that were given during lecture [see ppt & slides]. Rodentia, 2025 species of rats, squirrels, etc. . Woodchuck, porcupine, beaver, racoon and Prairie dog
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This note was uploaded on 11/18/2008 for the course BIO 1109 taught by Professor -2 during the Fall '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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ThePrelim2ReviewGuide for BioG 1109 - I. READ ALL the...

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