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prelim_1_study_guide_08 - 1 HD 1150 Prelim 1 Study Guide...

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1 HD 1150 Prelim 1 Study Guide Fall 2008 Berk, Ch 1, pp. 3-49: 1. What is a theory? a. Orderly integrated set of statements that describes, explains and predicts behavior 2. Name and explain three basic issues in child development, on which most theories take a stand. a. Is development continuous or discontinuous? b. Is there one course of development? c. Nature versus nurture? 3. What four factors has research on resiliency found seem to offer protection from stressful life events? a. Personal characteristics b. A warm parental relationship c. Social support outside of immediate family d. Community resources and opportunities 4. How were children viewed in medieval Europe? a. Clear awareness of children being vulnerable beings and childhood being a distinct developmental period was there but some religious writing contained that children’s basic nature was possessed by the devil and in need of purification, at other times innocent as angels. 5. How did John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau view children? a. Locke viewed children as tabula rasa which means blank slate. Characteristics based all on experience. From harness towards children to kindness and compassion. He believed in many courses of development and changes with new experiences. b. Jean-Jacques Rousseau believed that children are noble savages, naturally endowed with a sense of wrong and right. he believed in stages and maturation of oneself due to predestined genetic paths of self growth. 6. What did G. Stanley Hall and Arnold Gesell contribute to the study of child development? a. The developed the normative approach which is the measure of behavior taken on by large numbers of individuals and age related averages are computed to represent development.
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2 7. Describe the psychoanalytic theory, including its founder, as well as the five stages of development and three parts of the personality described in the theory. a. Psychoanalytic theory i. It is Freud based ii. There are three parts of personality 1. Id: primitive instinct 2. Ego: source of reason which tries to satisfy the id in ways which are acceptable by society 3. Superego: conscience; the internalization demands of society iii. 5 stages of development 1. Oral- birth to 1- ego directs the baby to sucking acitivities, if not development properly as thumb sucking, fingernail biting, overeating and smoking in later life 2. Anal- 1-3 yrs- enjoy holding and releasing urine and feces. 3. Phallic- 3-6 yrs- preschoolers enjoy genital stimulation. Children feel a sexual desire for other sex parent. To avoid punishment, they give up desire and adopt same sex characteristics from same sex parent. 4. Latency- 6-11 yrs- sexual instinct die down, children’s superego develop more, new social values 5. Genital- adolescence-phallic stage reappear, if development was successful up to this stage, leads to marriage and sexual maturity.
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