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Chapter 6-Cognitive Develop Infancy

Infants, Children, and Adolescents (6th Edition)

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6: Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood Piaget's Cognitive-Developmental Theory Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete Operations Formal Operations Schemes Organized ways of making sense of Action-based Mental-based Adaptation Adaptation Assimilation Accommodation Adaptation, cont. Equilibrium used more than during this time Disequilibrium -the state of cognitive that occurs during times of rapid change; used more than Organization An internal process of and together to form an interconnected cognitive system Sensorimotor Substages Reflexive Schemes Birth 1 month Primary Circular Reactions 14 months Newborn reflexes Simple motor habits centered around own body Repeat interesting effects in soundings Intentional, goal-directed behavior; object permanence Explore properties of objects through novel actions Internal depictions of objects or events; deferred imitation Secondary Circular 4 8 Reactions months Coordination of 8 12 Secondary Circular months Reactions Tertiary Circular Reactions Mental Representations 12 18 months 12 months 2 years Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage Circular reaction -infant's own body manipulating objects producing novel effects in the environment Object Permanence Understanding that to when Incomplete at first: continue A-not-B error Mental Representations Internal, mental depictions of objects, people, events, information Deferred imitation Make-believe play Evaluation of Sensorimotor Stage Some developments happen at time Piaget described: Many appear to happen soon than Piaget thought: Core knowledge Information Processing Sensory register Working/short-term memory Central Executive Long-term memory Information Processing Storage Model Improvements in Information Processing During Infancy Attention Efficiency, ability to shift focus improve. Less attraction to novelty, better sustained attention after first year. Retention intervals lengthen. Recall appears by 1 year; excellent in second year. Memory Categorizat Impressive perceptual ion categorization in first year. Conceptual categorization in second year Autobiographical Memory Narrative accounting of significant onetime events that have personal meaning Infantile amnesia Evaluation of Information Processing Findings Continuous Fails to build a theory of cognitive development Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory Social contexts Zone of Proximal Development Individual Differences in Early Mental Development Accurately measuring the intelligence of infants is very challenging Called Developmental Quotients (DQs) rather than Intelligence Quotients (IQs) The Bell Curve: What does it tell us? Early Environment and Mental Development Organized, stimulating physical setting Parental encouragement, involvement, and affection Infant and Toddler Child Care Over % of North American mothers with a child under age 2 are employed IQ Improvement from Early Intervention Programs Elements of Developmentally Appropriate Child Care Responsive, interactive, well-trained caregivers Clean, safe, uncrowded indoor spaces Appropriate toys, stored within reach Parents welcome anytime Low teacher-child ratios Flexible daily schedule Warm atmosphere Safe equipment Accredited Three Theories of Language Development Learned through operant conditioning (reinforcement) and imitation Nativist Inborn Language Acquisition Device (LAD) biologically prepares infants to learn rules of language. Interactionist Inner capacities and environment work together; Social context is important. Behaviorist Language Areas in the Brain Broca's area -located in the -controls language Wernicke's area -located in the -controls language lobe lobe Language Development Sensitive period Cooing and babbling Language Development, cont. Joint attention -child attends to the same object or event as the caregiver who offers Language Development, cont. Underextension -when young children first learn words they sometimes apply them too Overextension Language production versus language comprehension ...
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