Unformatted text preview: Chapter 7: Emotional and Social Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood Erikson's Theory of Infant and Toddler Personality 8 Stages Basic Trust versus Mistrust Birth-1 year Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt 1 year 3 years Basic Trust Versus Mistrust Feeding & Oral Stimulation Conflict is positively resolved if the balance of care is and loving. Negative effects Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt Resolved favorably provide young children with suitable and choices Negative outcome Development of Basic Emotions Universal Directly inferred from Initially undifferentiated Happiness Binds parent and baby Social smile Laughter Anger and Sadness Angry expressions increase Sadness Fear from 18 months to 2 years Stranger anxiety Understanding and Responding to the Emotions of Others Emotional contagion Organized patterns Social referencing Emergence of Self-Conscious Emotions Involve injury or enhancement to sense of self Emotional Self-Regulation Strategies used to emotional states to a level of intensity Development of Temperament Stable individual differences in quality and intensity of emotional reaction, activity level, attention, and emotional self-regulation Thomas and Chess Temperament is adjustment Parenting practices of psychological The Structure of Temperament Easy children Difficult children -slow to accept new experiences -at-risk for problems Slow-to-warm-up children -adjust to new experiences Stability of Temperament Long-term stability of temperament Long-term prediction of temperament is best achieved Development of Temperament, cont. Changes shown by many children suggest that can biologically based temperamental traits Goodness-of-fit model Temperament and environment Emotional dance Development of Attachment Strong, affectionate tie we feel toward special people in our lives Early feeding Bowlby's Ethological Theory of Attachment Infant's emotional tie to the caregiver evolved response promotes survival Infant is endowed with a set of built-in behaviors that keep the parent nearby Four Phases of Attachment Development Preattachment phase "Attachment in the making" phase Phase of "clear cut" attachment separation anxiety secure base Formation of reciprocal relationship Internal Working Model Early care giving experiences Measuring the Security of Attachment The Strange Situation Secure attachment Avoidant attachment Resistant attachment Disorganized/disoriented attachment Factors that Affect Attachment Security Opportunity for attachment Quality of care giving Infant characteristics Family circumstances Parents' internal working models Attachment in context Self-Awareness I-Self sense of self as Me-Self sense of self as an compare and categorize Emergence of Self-Control Capacity to resist an impulse to engage in socially disapproved behavior Constant parental oversight and reminders Compliance ...
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- Spring '07
- basic emotions, ATTACHMENT DEVELOPMENT, attachment avoidant attachment, attachment Disorganized/disoriented attachment