Chapter 1--History Theory Research Strategies

Infants, Children, and Adolescents (6th Edition)

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Unformatted text preview: In fan ts an d Chil dr en EDPS Y 254 Chapter 1: History, Theory, and Research Strategies What i s Ch il d De ve lopme nt? Understanding all aspects of human constancy and change from conception through adolescence Interdisciplinary St udying Ch ild Deve lo pme nt Syst ematic Ob serv atio n Naturalistic Observation In the “field” or natural environment where behavior happens Structured Observations Laboratory situation set up to evoke behavior of interest All participants have equal chance to display behavior Intervie ws Clinical Interview Flexible, conversational style Probes for participant’s point of view Structured Interview Each participant is asked same questions in same way May use questionnaires, get answers from groups Ps ychophysio lo gic al Methods Autonomic nervous system activity Heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, pupils, stress hormones Brain Function EEG Functional brain imaging (fMRI) Other rese arch me thods Case study Self reports Correlational or experimental design Longitudinal or cross-sectional design -what are the pros/cons of each? Ch il dre n’s Re se arch Rights Protection from harm Informed consent Privacy Knowledge of results Beneficial treatments Pe rio ds o f De ve lo pme nt Prenatal Infancy and Toddlerhood Early Childhood Conception to birth Birth to 2 years 2 to 6 years Middle Childhood 6 to 11 years Adolescence 11 to 18 years Emerging Adulthood 18 to 25 years Do main s o f De ve lo pme nt Domain Physical Changes in Body size & proportions, appearance Function of body systems, health Perceptual & motor capacities Cognitive Intellectual abilities Social Emotional communication Self-understanding, knowledge about others Interpersonal skills & relationships Moral reasoning & behavior Hist oric al Foundatio ns Medieval Times Chiddhood is a separate phase of life w/special needs Reformation (Puritans) Children are born evil, stubborn, need to be civilized child rearing was top priority John Locke tabula rasa; “blank slate” Jean Jacques Rousseau Children are noble savages who may be harmed by adult training Hot t opic s Continuous versus Discontinuous? One course or Many different courses of development? Nature versus Nurture? Stability versus Potential for Change? Most contemporary theorists recognize the balance of both sides of these issues. Co ntin uous or Disc ontin uous De ve lo pme nt On e c ourse or ma ny course s o f developme nt Stage theorists believe that all child follow the same course of development Different contexts, unique combinations Contemporary theorists recognize the multi-layered and complex aspects of children’s lives Natu re ve rsu s Nu rtu re Genetics Stability In born, innate Biological Environment Change Social world Influence biological and psychological development Th eories Related to Ch ild De ve lopment Ea rly s cientif ic st udy of d eve lo pme nt Evolutionary theory Darwin The most desirable and useful abilities and characteristics have been selected for and reproduced over many generations Normative approach averages based on large numbers of people ”typicality” Mental testing Simon and Binet Freud’s Pe rso nality ThId eory Largest portion of the mind Unconscious, present at birth Source of biological needs & desires Ego Conscious, rational part of mind Emerges in early infancy Superego Our conscience Develops from ages 3 to 6, from interactions with caregivers Freud’s Psyc hose xual Sta ges Oral Anal Phallic Latency Genital Er ik so n’s Psyc hosocial Sta ges Basic trust v. mistrust Birth–1 year Autonomy v. 1–3 years shame and doubt Initiative v. 3–6 years guilt Industry v. inferiority 6–11 years Identity v. identity confusion Intimacy v. isolation Adolescence Emerging Adulthood Generativity Adulthood v. stagnation Integrity v. despair Old Age Be havio rism & So cia l Learnin g Classical Conditioning Stimulus – Response Operant Conditioning Reinforcers and Punishments Social Learning Modeling Vyg otsk y’ s So cio cultural Th eory Transmission of culture to new generation Beliefs, customs, skills Social interaction necessary to learn culture Cooperative dialogue with more knowledgeable members of society Pia get’s St ages of Cognit ive De ve lo pme nt Sensorimotor Birth–2 years Preoperational 2–7 years Concrete Operational Formal Operational 7–11 years 11 years and older In fo rm atio n Pro cessin g View the mind as a computer Believe that children are active beings Continuous development is supported with these types of theories Flow charts are often used to display these types of theories In fo rm atio n-Pro cessin g Evo lutio nary De ve lo pmental Psyc hology Seeks to understand adaptive value of human competencies Examples? Se nsit ive Perio d An optimal time for certain capacities to emerge Individual is especially responsive to environment Later development is hard to induce Boundaries less defined than a critical period Jeannie example Ecolo gic al Sy stems Th eory Urie Bronfrenbrenner Microsystem- immediate environment Mesosystem- connections among microsystem (church & family) Exosystem- do not include child but affects their experiences Macrosystem- culture Chronosystem- temporal dimension; not static Ec olo gical Syst ems Theory Dyn amic Syst ems Pe rsp ective Integrated system Dynamic=constantly in motion Active child Examples? Dyn amic Syst ems Pe rsp ective Class Ac tivi ty-Resi lie nce Ask students to work in groups/pairs to identify a stressful time in their own childhood. Were there one or more adults whose presence made that time more manageable? If so what were the qualities of the relationship between the adult and the student that contributed to the student’s ability to cope? What evidence do we have today that communities are attempting to foster resilience in some, especially those at-risk for emotional or behavioral difficulties? In what ways do you think you can help build children’s capacity to reduce their exposure to risk and affect a positive change in children’s environments within your future classroom? Devise an intervention that draws from heredity and environment ...
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