Chapter 9-Cognitive Development Early Childhood PartIII

Infants, Children, and Adolescents (6th Edition)

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 9: Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Information Processing Theory Information Processing Focuses on the mental strategies that children use to process information Attention Memory Problem Solving Theory of Mind Early Literacy Early Mathematical Reasoning Spend relatively short times involved in tasks Between 2 and 3 years, sustained attention dramatically increases Children improve in planning providing that tasks are familiar and not too complex Attention Memory Preschoolers have the language skills to describe what they remember Recognition Recall Memory for Familiar Events Memory for OneTime Events Recognition Memory Recognition abilities are remarkably good and nearly perfect by age 5. Recall Memory Recall remembering Preschoolers recall poorly due to a lack of effective Scripts Memory for Familiar Events General descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in familiar, repeated events Help children organize, interpret, and predict repeated events Autobiographical memory Memory for OneTime Events prompting ask varied questions, add information to children's statements, and volunteer their own recollections prompting provide little information ask the same questions over and over Problem Solving Selecting a strategy Moving to more efficient strategies Factors related to improved problem solving Min strategy theory when given challenging problems, children try out a variety of strategies, observe which work best, which work less well, and which are ineffective. Selecting a Strategy How do children move from less to more efficient strategies? Discover a faster procedure while using a more timeconsuming technique Some problems highlight the need for a more efficient strategy Factors that contribute to improved problem solving Practice Reasoning New challenges Adult assistance As children's memory, problem solving, and representation of the world improves, they begin to reflect on their own thought Metacognition Awareness of mental life Factors contributing to preschoolers' theory of mind Limitations of the preschoolers' theory of mind Theory of Mind Infants' and toddlers' display an emerging capacity for understanding that people influence each other's mental states Awareness of Mental Life However, children of this age incorrectly believe that people act simply based on their desires and neglect how an individual's belief system affects behavior Age 3 & 4 children use "think" and "know" Age 4 children realize that beliefs and desires determine behavior False belief Awareness of Mental Life Language and cognitive skills Factors Contributing to Preschoolers' Theory of Mind Makebelieve play preschoolers who engage in extensive fantasy play are advanced in understanding false belief Social interaction Preschoolers' awareness of mental activities is far from complete Preschoolers view the mind as a passive container of information Limitations of the Young Child's Theory of Mind Preschoolers understand a vast amount about written language prior to learning to read or write Emergent literacy Early Childhood Literacy children's active efforts to construct literacy knowledge through informal experiences Preschoolers tend to think that a single letter stands for an entire word Believe that letters look like the meanings they represent Children first rely on sounds in the names of letters to help them spell Early Childhood Literacy Preschooler's Spelling ADE LAFWTS KRMD NTU A LAVATR What does this say? Literacy development builds on a broad foundation of spoken language and knowledge about the world Phonological awareness Early Childhood Literacy Pointing out lettersound relationships Playing languagesound games Interactive story book reading Adult supported narrative writing activities LowSES children have fewer home and preschool language and literacy learning opportunities than their higherSES age mates Factors Contributing to Early Childhood Literacy Early Childhood Math Reasoning Ordinality relationships between quantities Counting Emerges between ages 2 and 3 Becomes more precise between ages 3 and 4 Early Childhood Math Reasoning Principle of the last number in a counting sequence indicates the quantity of items in the set By age 4, children use counting to solve basic addition problems min approach appears Arithmetic knowledge emerges universally around the world Activity Research shows that children's home lives exert a profound impact on their intellectual development. when compared to children growing up in middle and upperincome families, children growing up in poverty often score much lower on intelligence tests and are atrisk for academic problems. Activity Questions What characteristics of the home environment support children's academic growth? Using examples, describe how you think lowerincome families can support their children's intellectual development? Is it necessary to buy expensive toys and materials for the home? How can you consider and support the needs of these children in your classroom? ...
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