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Chapter 9-Cognitive Development Early Childhood PartIV

Infants, Children, and Adolescents (6th Edition)

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 9: Individual Differences in Mental Development Early Childhood Intelligence Tests Intelligence tests do not sample all human abilities Cultural and situational factors Cultural bias Home Environment and Mental Development Preschoolers who develop well intellectually have homes that foster cognitive growth Parents Rich in educational toys and books. Warm and affectionate Stimulate language and academic knowledge Arrange outings to places with interesting things to see and do Make reasonable demands for socially mature behavior Resolve conflicts with reason rather than physical punishment Preschool versus Child Care One specific form of child care Planned educational experiences Aimed at enhancing development Usually housed in a child care center Supervision of children Variety of settings Good child care not simply keeping children safe and fed Should provide high quality educational experiences although many do not Types of preschool and kindergarten programs Childcentered program Academic programs Teachers have felt pressure to teach academic skills, however research shows that premature academic training undermines motivation and emotional wellbeing Benefits of Preschool Interventions Overall, initial gains in IQ scores quickly after a couple of years Longterm positive effects include: Higher rates of high school graduation and college attendance Lower adolescent drug use and delinquency Characteristics of High-Quality Child Care Small group size Low caregiverchild ratio Safe, clean physical setting Appropriate, enriching daily activities Interactions between adults and children Licensed or accredited Open, welcoming relationship with parents Educational Media Does heavy TV viewing and computer impair children's development? cognitive development. Research shows that it does impact children's Language Development Language is crucial to other aspects of cognitive development. Vocabulary Grammar Conversation Supporting Language Development in Early Childhood Increases dramatically during early childhood Fast mapping Vocabulary Connect a new word with an underlying concept after only a brief encounter Vocabulary Mutual exclusivity bias Assuming that novel labels cannot apply to familiar objects Syntactic bootstrapping Overregularization Grammar Semantic bootstrapping Children must learn to engage in effective and Conversation appropriate conversation with others known as pragmatics By age 4, children adjust their speech to fit the age, sex, and social status of their listeners Between ages and , conversing and giving directions over the phone greatly improve Supporting Language Development in Early Childhood Interaction with more skilled speakers Using additional techniques that promote language skills Provide subtle, indirect feedback Expansions Recast ...
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