Unformatted text preview: Chapter 10: Emotional and Social Development in Early Childhood Initiative versus guilt Erikson's Theory Resolved positively through experiences that foster a healthy sense of initiative and through development of a that is not overly strict Negative outcome overly strict superego Play Foundations of SelfConcept The set of attributes, abilities, attitudes, and values that an individual believes defines who her or she is Preschoolers usually describe themselves with terms By age 3 1/2 , they are able to describe themselves in terms of Children's struggles over seem to be a sign of developing selfhood Emergence of SelfEsteem An aspect of selfconcept that involves judgments about one's own worth and the feelings associated with those judgments Affects children's emotional experiences, future behavior, and longterm psychological adjustment Emergence of SelfEsteem Not as well defined as that of older children or adults High sense of selfesteem contributes greatly to preschoolers' Criticism can undermine a preschooler's sense of selfesteem and enthusiasm for learning Emotional Development Gains in representation, language, and selfconcept support emotional development Understanding Emotion Emotional SelfRegulation SelfConscious Emotions Empathy and Sympathy Cognitive Development and Emotional Understanding Children refer to causes, consequences, and behavioral signs of emotion change others' feelings has limits Impressive ability to interpret, predict, and However, children's emotional understanding Social Experience and Emotional Understanding Preschoolers who grow up in families that frequently discuss feelings are better at judging the emotions of others later in life Makebelieve play with siblings is related to advanced emotional understanding Emotional SelfRegulation The ability to control the expression of emotion Language contributes to preschoolers' improvement in this area over toddlerhood Temperament affects the development of emotional selfregulation Increased use of such selfregulating strategies less frequent emotional outbursts Emotional SelfRegulation Most cultures encourage their members to communicate positive feelings and inhibit unpleasant ones as a way of promoting good interpersonal relations Preschoolers' vivid imaginations, along with their difficulty in separating appearance from reality, make fears a common occurrence in ealry childhood SelfConscious Emotions Emotions that involve injury to or enhancement of the sense of self Intense shame Guilt Empathy and Sympathy Empathy motivates prosocial or altruistic behavior Temperament React to the suffering of others in the same way that their parents respond to them Peer Relations Peers provide young children invaluable learning experiences Advances in peer sociability First friendships Social problem solving Parental influences on early peer relations Nonsocial activity Parallel play
but Advances in Peer Sociability Onlooker behavior and solitary play Child plays near other children with similar materials Advances in Peer Sociability Two forms of true social interaction Associative play Cooperative play Cultural Variations on Peer Relations Culture shapes children's interactions and play activities First Friendships Preschool children regard friendship as pleasurable play and sharing of toys Early friendships lack longterm, enduring quality based on mutual trust Social Problem Solving Social conflicts offer children invaluable learning opportunities for social problem solving Social ProblemSolving Process Children who get along well with age mates Interpret social cues accurately Formulate goals that enhance relationships Repertoire of Children with difficulties often Hold biased social expectations Selectively attend to others' behavior Training Problem Solving Intervening enhances development Discuss how to resolve social problems Practice enacting responses Direct Parental Influences on Early Peer Relations Young children depend on their parents to help them establish peer associations Influence their children's social relations Indirect Parental Influences on Early Peer Relations Secure attachments to parents more responsive, harmonious peer relations Highly involved, positive, and cooperative play between parents and preschoolers ...
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- Spring '07
- Psychology, Peer Sociability, Emotional Understanding, Early Peer Relations, emotional selfregulation