Geog Summary.docx - CHAPTER 1&2 – MODERNITY...

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CHAPTER 1&2 – MODERNITY, MODERNIZATION/ LOCAL-GLOBAL Modernization: It is more than just “new-ness”, but with specific understanding of historical time that involves. It’s the application of scientific principles to human and natural worlds, the development of industrial economies, and formation of states, connecting between economic, political, social and cultural changes. (1 way of thinking) Rostow’s theory: Modernization is a progress, a path to modernity that is beneficial and positive. (2 nd way of thinking) Creative destruction: Changes involved are dramatic and unsettling ones, and that making a new future always means destroying many of the geographies and ways of life of the past and present. This is necessary for “capitalism” to be successful. Human geography: Focuses on local and global. It stresses the different ways in which people have discursively constructed the world in different times and places. There are 4 different “discourse”. o (1) Discourse of exploration – the desire the “know” the world. o (2) Discourse of development – the hope of “improving” the world. E.g.: act against inequality, rebuild values of society. o (3) Discourse of global environmentalism – passion to “save” the world against threats such as global warming. Understanding the true impacts of our local actions. o (4) Discourse of global compression – look into the “shrinking of the world” and have spatial perspective. Increasing dense interconnections between people and places on other sides of the world from each other. Globalization: the economic, political, social and cultural processes whereby places across the globe are increasingly interconnected, economics transaction globally increased (transnational). Not all places need to become the same. Mosaic approach of HG: The global is portrayed as a collection of smaller locals (peoples and places), each one being a piece in the broader global pattern. Each piece of the mosaic is seen as having distinctive “contents”. Emphasis on boundaries and borders where geographical difference is seen in terms of distinct areas that can have lines drawn around the. These areas are understood in terms of their unique characteristics such as language, cultural, food. So any intrusion into this distinctive area tend to be seen as threat to its uniqueness. HOWEVER, argument is that global level processes may actually produce local differences not destroy. System approach of HG: The global is portrayed as a set of relations through which local differences are produced. Looks at local-global relations via the local differences produced by the global system. The
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differences between places are not seen as a consequence of their internal qualities but as a result of their location within the wider world.
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