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Handouts-Week 2

Handouts-Week 2 - rm TEAMS VERSE BEAR/HQ WALLS SUFFDRT...

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Unformatted text preview: rm TEAMS VERSE BEAR/HQ WALLS SUFFDRT FURL!” REACTIOMS SHEA THING mM“""A'Dflv't'tl- mm .' narrow mama/M Ran-nous ,‘ Flgun 3.1 1. Sheathing spans between subpurlins. 2. Subpurlins span between purlins. 3. Purlins span between girders. 4. Girders span between columns. 20' (6, rr I 513054? \\‘ I N .. :S . h) “ J0’5T5 n 921%.; ' S G u _ y I 5: 5: THE. AREA 5‘ FOE at 55 'u ,r 3 ' ‘3 TYP. COLUMN TRIS: AREA FOR J: ROOF a: FL 00/? FA’AM/NG PLAN Tributary Area Calculations A¢=trib.width><span A,=A,r>(KLL JoistJl A¢=2x12=24fi3 A1=24XZ=48fi2 JniatJL’ AT=2x14=28fi3 Al=28><2=56ft3 Girder Gl Ar = (1% + “/§)20 = 260 it“ A} = 260 x 2 = 520 a“ Girder Gz AT = (1% + 1%)24 = 312 112 A, = 312 x 2 = 624 it” Interior column Cl AT = (1% + "MW/a + “A; = 286 11:2 AI = 286 x 4 = 1144112 Exterior column C2 A, = (1%)(30/2 + 3%) = 132 a? A1 = 132 x 4 = 528 1:3 Corner 0011mm CB AT : (“AXE/h) = 70 fl.“ A; = 70 X 2 I 140 ft? It should be pointed out that the unit live loads specified in the IBC are applied on a horizontal plane. Therefore, roof live loads on a flat roof can be added directly to the roof dead load. In the case of a sloping roof, the dead load would probably be estimated along the sloping roof; the roof live load, however, woald be on a horizontal plane. In order to be added together, the live load are gravity loads, and they both, therefore, are vertical (not inclined) In certain framing arrangements, unbalanced live loads (or snow loads) can produce a more critical design situation than loads over the entire span. Should this occur, the IBC requires that unbalanced loads be considered. EXAMPLE £5 Comblnod D +, L, on Sloplng Reef ’4 L,- FEbM 0902 m. _Dfiljim PaoFo ALONG ROOF SLOPE W The tal roof load (D + L,) can be obtained either as a distributed load along the roof slope r as a load on a horizontal plane. The lengths L1 and L2 on which the loads are apph must be conside . Equiv lent total roof loads (D + L,): Loa on horizontal plane: Load along roof slope: 2.3 Adju tment of Reference Design Values 2.3.1 Applic : bility of Adjustment Factors Reference desi values shall be multiplied by all applicable adjustrn nt factors to determine adjusted de— sign values. The aplicability of adjustment factors to sawn lumber, strutural glued laminated timber, poles and piles, prefabri ated wood I—joists, structural com- posite lumber, wod structural panels, and connection design values is dfined in 4.3, 5.3, 6.3, 7.3, 8.3, 9.3, and 10.3, respectivly. 2.3.2 Load D ration Factor, 0,, (ASD only) 2.3.2.1 Wood as the property of carrying substan- tially greater max‘ mum loads for short durations than for long durations f loading. Reference design values apply to normal l-ad duration. Normal load duration represents a load ht fiilly stresses a member to its al- lowable design val e by the application of the full de- sign load for a cumulative duration of approximately ten years. When the cumulative duration of the full maxi- mum load does not exceed the specified time period, all reference design values except modulus of elasticity, E, modulus of elasticity for beam and column stability, Em,,,, and compression perpendicular to grain, Fci, based on a deformation limit (see 4.2.6) shall be multiplied by the appmpriate load duration factor, CD, from Table 2.3.2 or Figure B1 (see Appendix B) to take into ac— count the change in strength of wood with changes in load duration. 2.3.2.2 The load duration factor, CD, for the shortest duration load in a combination of loads shall apply for that load combination. All applicable load combinations shall be evaluated to determine the critical load combi- nation. Design of structural members and connections shall be based on the critical load combination (see Ap- pendix B.2). 2.3.2-3 The load duration factors, CD, in Table 2.3.2 and Appendix B are independent of load combination factors, and both shall be permitted to be used in design calculations (see 1.4.4 and Appendix B.4). Table .3.2 Frequently Used Load Duration Factors, c; Load D : ation CD T nical Desi_n Loads Permane t 0.9 Dead Load Ten yea 1.0 Occupancy Live Load Two mo ths 1.15 Snow Load Seven da 3 1.25 Construction Load Ten min cs 1.6 Wind/Earthquake Load Im- act2 2.0 Imact Load 1. Load . ., I'on factors shall not apply to reference modulus of elastic- ity, E, -erence modulus of elasticity for beam and column stability, Em, n- to reference compression perpendicular to grain design val- ues, F4, -ased on a deformation limit. 2. Load d tion factors greater than 1.6 shall not apply to structural membe ~ pressure-treated with water-borne preservatives {see Refer- ence 30) or fire retardant chemicals. The impact load duration factor shall not ply to connections. Tab = 2.3.3 Temperature Factor, c, Rcfe encc Design In-Service C, Valu s $233351 T5100°F 100°F<T $125°F 125°F<TS150°F F,, E, Emu, Wet or D 1.0 0.9 0.9 Dry 1.0 0.8 0.7 F'” F’ F“ and 11., Wet 1.0 0.7 0.5 l W and dry service conditions for sawn lumber, structural glued laminated timber, prefabricated wood [Tjoists, structural - co mu site lumber, and wood structural panels are specified in 4.1.4, 5.1.5. 7.1.4, 8.1.4, and 9.3.3, respectlveiy. 4.3 Adju tment of Reference Design Values 4.3.1 General Reference des gn values (Fb, F,, F,, F“, F,, E, Em) from Tables 4A, A : , 4C, 4D, 4E, and 4F shall be multi— plied by the adeSl ent factors specified in Table 4.3.1 to determine adj .ted design values (Fb', FJ, FV', Fu', Fella El: Elfin.)- 4.3.2 Load . uration Factor, c, (ASD only) All reference lesign values except modulus of elas- ticity, E, modulu- of elasticity for beam and column stability, Em, an- compression perpendicular to grain, Fa, shall be multi nlied by load duration factors, CD, as specified in 2.3.2. 4.3.3 Wet Service Factor, 0,, Reference design values for structural sewn lumber are based on the moisture service conditions specified in 4.1.4. When the moisture content of structural mem- bers in use difi'ers from these moisture service condi- tions, reference design values shall be multiplied by the wet service factors, CM, specified in Tables 4A, 4B, 4C, 4D, 45, and 4F. 4.3.4 Temperature Factor, I:t When structural members will experience sustained exposure to elevated temperatures up to 150°F (see Ap- pendix C), reference design values shall be multiplied by the temperature factors, Ct, specified in 2.3.3. Table 4.3.1 Applicability of Adjustment Factors for Sawn Lumber Temperature Factor Flat Use Factor Wet Service Factor Beam Stability Factor ASD and LRFD Incising Factor Column Stability Factor Buckling Stiffness Factor Bearing Area Factor Repetitive Member Factor HEEWITI NMVS 4.3.5 Beam 'tability Factor, 1':L Reference ben g design values, Fb, shall be mul- tiplied by the bean stability factor, CL, specified in 3-3.3. 4.3.6 Size F .. ctor, c, 4.3.6.1 Refere e bending, tension, and compres- sion parallel to gra. design values for visually graded dimension lumber " to 4" thick shall be multiplied by the size factors speified in Tables 4A and 43. 4.3.6.2 When . e depth of a rectangular sawn lum— ber bending memb 5" or thicker exceeds 12", the ref- erence bending des gn values, Pb, in Table 4D shall be multiplied by the f - lowing size factor: CF =(12/ are 51.0 4.3.6.3 For he- s of circular cross section with a diameter greater th I 13.5", or for 12" or larger square beams loaded in th- plane of the diagonal, the size fac— tor shall be dete fled in accordance with 4.3.6.2 on the basis of an equ alent conventionally loaded square beam of the same c oss-sectional area; 4.3.6.4 Refere: ce bending design values for all species of 2" thic i or 3" thick Decking, except Red— wood, shall be mu iplied by the size factors specified in Table 4B. (4.3-1) 4.3.7 Flat U - Factor, c," When sawn 1 her 2" to 4" thick is loaded on the wide face, multipl ing the reference bending design value, Fb, by the fla use factors, Cf“, specified in Tables 4A, 4B, 4C, and 4F shall be permitted. 4.3.9 Ropet tive Member Factor, 0, Reference ben ing design values, Pb, in Tables 4A, 4B, 4C, and 4F fr dimension lumber 2" to 4" thick shall be multiplie by the repetitive member factor, Cr = 1.15, when sue: members are used as joists, truss chords, rafters, stuns, planks, decking, or similar mem- bers which are in ontact or spaced not more than 2 " on center, are not less than three in number and are joined by floor, rof or other load distributing elements adequate to suppo the design load. (A load distribut- ing element is an adequate system that is designed or has been proven uy experience to transmit the design load to adjacent embers, spaced as described above, without displaying structural weakness or unacceptable deflection. Subflo ring, flooring, sheathing, or other covering elements . d nail gluing or tongue and groove joints, and throu_ nailing generally meet these crite- ria.) Reference beding design values in Table 4E for visually graded Dcking have already been multiplied by c,=1.15. 4.3.10 Column Stability Factor, c, Reference compression design values parallel to grain, Fe, shall be multiplied by the column stability factor, Cp, specified in 3.7. 4.3.12 Bearing Area Factor, c, Reference compression design values perpendicular to grab], Fa, shall be permitted to be multiplied by the bearing area factor, Cb, as specified in 3.10.4. 4.3.13 Pressure-Presewative Treatment Reference design values apply to sawn lumber pressure—treated by an approved process and preserva- tive (see Reference 30). Load duration factors greater than 1.6 shall not apply to structural members pressure- treated with water—borne preservatives. 4.3.14 Format Conversion Factor, K, (LRFD only) For LRFD, reference design values shall be multi— plied by the format conversion factor, K;, specified in Appendix N3. 1. ’ 4.3.15 Resistance Factor. ¢ (LRFD only) For LRFD, reference design values shall be multi- plied by the resistance factor, (b, specified in Appendix N.3.2. 4.3.16 Time Effect Factor, 7L (LRFD only) For LRF D, reference design values shall be multi- plied by the time effect factor, JL, specified in Appendix N.3.3. APPENDIX Table N1 Format Conversion Factor, KF (LRFD Only) Application Properly KF Member Fb, Ft, Fv: Fe, Fri: F 5 2161/4} Fa 1375/0 Emin 1.5/ __cw_—____‘_—_0_ Connections (all connections in the NDS) 2.16/0 N.3.2 Resi — tance Factor, ¢ (LRFD Only) Reference - sign values shall be multiplied by the resistance factor (I), as specified in Table N2 (see Ref- erence 55). ——________ Table N2 Resistance Factor, 4: (LRFD Only) Application Properly: Symbol Value Member F1, 4% 0.85 F, q), 0.80 FV, F", 1?8 qr, 0.75 Fe, FL, (I); 0.90 Em,“ 9s 0.85 Connections ‘ (all) g: 0.65 N.3.3 Time Effect Factor, PL (LRFD 0M!) SECTION 2.2 SYMBOLS AND NOTATION Reference d- sign values shall be multiplied by the time effect facto, 7L, as specified in Table N3. D = dead back. ‘_— ”—- D,- = weight of ice; __ _ )7 E = earthquake load; Table N3 Time E fect Factor, 7L (LRFD Only) F = load due to fluids maximum heights; Load Combination 7L Fa = fl°°d load; I.4(D+F) 0.6 H = load due to lateral earth pressure, 1.2(D+F) + 1.6(H) + 0.(Lr or s or R) 0.6 ground water Pie-“'3'“ 1.2(D+F) + 1.6(L+H) 0.5(Lr or S or R) 0.7 when L is from storage L = live 103d; 0.8 when L is from occupancy Lr = ‘°_°f live load; 1.25 when L is from impactl R = ram load; 1.2D + 1.6(L, or s or - I + (L or 0.8W) 0.8 S = ”W bid} 1.2D+1.6W+L+0.5 ,orSorR) 1.0 affiwm‘i‘fi 1.2D + 1.013 + L + 0.2 ‘ 1.0 W. : windfimée 0.9D+1.6W+1.6H 1.0 "' 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H 1.0 1. Time effect factors. 70, grea 1' than 1.0 shall not apply to connections or to structural members pressure- treated with water-borne pre. atives (see Reference 30) or fire retardant chemicals. 2 Load combinations and load factors consistent with ASCE 7-02 are listed for ease of reference. Nominal loads shall be in accordance 'th N.l.2. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES 9.L+.O? Table 4A Refe nee Design Values for Visually Graded Dimension Lumber (2" - 4""- (cont.) thic J1v2~3 (All Sp else except Southern Pine — see Table 4B) (Tabulated design values are for normal load duratio and dry service conditions. See NDS 4.3 for a comprehensive description of design value adjust ent factors.) USE WITH TABLE 4A ADJUSTMENT FACTORS Design values in pounds per square inch (psi) Species and commercial grade BEECH-BlHCH-HICKORY COTTONWOOD Select Structural No.1 No.2 No.3 2" 8. wider im‘ DOUGLAS FER-LARCH Select Structural No.1 No.2 No.3 thud WWPA a ,.l EASTER Select Structural No.1 No.2 No.3 AMERlCAN WOOD COUNCIL A‘ Table 4A ' 30 diu tment Factors Repetitive Member actor, Cr Bending design va ues, Fb, for dimension lumber 2" to 4" thick shall be m Itiplied by the repetitive member factor, C, = 1.15, whe such members are used as joists, truss chords, rafters, s uds, planks, decking, or similar members which are in contact or spaced not more than 24" on center, are not 1-.. s than 3 in number and are joined by floor, roof, or otherlad distributing elements adequate to support the design lo (1. Wet Service Factor, M When dimension 1 mber is used where moisture con— tent will exceed 19% f u r an extended time period, design values shall be multipl d by the appropriate wet service factors from the follow ng table: et S '- ice Factors, CM Ft 1:, v 12,, F. EaHdEmin 085* 1.0 It 97 0.67 0.8** 0.9 "' when (Fb)(C,.-) 5 1,150 psi, M = .0 ** when (F.1(CF) < 750 psi, M = 1.0 Size Factor, C Tabulated b be multiplied by Grades Width (depth) 2" 8r. 3 " Select Structural, No.1 & Btr, No.1, No.2, No.3 .2}! 3n,& 4It’ - it's: 6” ' REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES 2". s" w _ —— —— 2" — Flat Use Factor, Cfil Bending design values adjusted by size factors are based on edgewise use (load applied to narrow face). When dimension lumber is used flatwise (load applied to wide face), the bending design value, Fb, shall also be multi, plied by the following flat use factors: Flat Use Factors, Cm ' Thickness (breadth) 2" & 3" Width 2" & 3" 4" 5.. 6" 8" 10" & wider ‘ “winemg'z-LL.‘ =2 .iwm‘gv “§ _. E AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL Species and commercial grade ALASKA CEDAR Select Structural No.1 No.2 Select Structural No.1 No.2 BALDCYPRESS Select Structural No.1 No.2 BALSAM FIR Select Structural No.1 No.2 Select Structural No.1 No.2 Select Structural No.1 No.2 Select Structural No. 1 No.2 COAST SITKA SPRI Select Structural No.1 No.2 DOUGLAS FIR-LAR Dense Select Structural Select Structural Dense No.1 No.1 No.2 Dense Select Structural Select Structural Dense No.1 No.1 No.2 Dense Select Structural Select Structural Dense No.1 No.1 No.2 Dense No.2 Dense Select Structural Salem Structural Dense No.1 No.1 No.2 Dense No.2 BEECH-BlRCH-HICKORY J C E Beams and Slringers Select Structural Posts and No.1 Timbers No .2 DESiGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION r NOS SUPPLEMENT 45 fere ca Design Values for Visually Graded Timbers (5" x 5" and larger)“ (Tabulate design values are for normal load duration and dry service conditions, unless spe otherwls See NDS 4.3 for a comprehensive description of design value adjustment factors.) Cified Size . assification Bending Fo Posts and Tlmbers USE WITH TABLE 40 ADJUSTMENT FACTORS Design values in pounds per square inch (psi) Tension Shear Compression Compression parallel parallel perpendicular parallel to grain to grain to grain to grain Ft AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION Modulus of Elasllcity 1,700,000 1 000.000 1 .700.000 1 000.000 1.400.000 1.300.000 320.000 580.000 620.000 500.000 510.000 470.000 Beams and 1.400 675 155 525 925 1.200.000 440.000 stringers 1.150 . 475 155 525 775 1,200,000 440.000 750 300 155 525 500 1.000.000 370.000 WCLIB Posts and 1.300 700 155 525 975 440.000 Timbers 1.050 575 155 525 850 440.000 625 350 1 55 525 600 370.000 5"x5' and 1.150 750 200 015 1.050 1.300.000 470.000 Larger 1 .000 675 200 615 925 1.300.000 470.000 625 425 175 615 600 1,000,000 370.000 Beams and 1.350 900 125 950 1 .400000 510.000 Stringers 1.100 750 125 800 1.400.000 510,000 725 350 125 500 1 .100.000 400.000 NELMA Posts and 1.250 025 , 1 .400.000 510.000 NSLB Timbers 1.000 675 075 1 .400.000 510.000 575 375 1 .100.000 000 Seems and 1.650 975 715 975 1.500.000 550.000 Stringers 1,400 715 025 1.500.000 . 900 450 715 525 1.200.000 440.000 NELMA Posts and 1.550 180 715 1.050 1.500.000 550.000 Timbers 1,250 160 715 1.500.000 550.000 725 475 180 715 425 1.200.000 440.000 1.150 675 115 455 775 1,500,000 550,000 950 475 115 455 650 1.500.000 550.000 625 325 115 455 425 1.200.000 440.000 NLGA 1.100 725 115 825 1,500.000 550.000 575 1 1 5 725 1 500,000 550,000 525 350 115 500 1.200.000 440.000 C H Beams and Slringers WCLIB 1.700.000 1.600.000 1.700.000 1.600.000 1.300.000 Beams and Stringers W‘WPA SEITIVA N'SISBG BONEHEJEH J I REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES Table 40 A- 'ust ont Factors Size Factor, CF When the depth, d, I f a beam, stringer, post, or timber exceeds 12", the abulat - d bending design value, Fb, shall be multiplied by the fol owing size factor: cF = (12 mm When beams and s 'ngers are subjected to loads ap- plied to the wide face, abulated design values shall be multiplied by the folio ing size factors: Si Factors, CF Grade Select Structural No. 1 No.2 Wet Service Factor, CM When timbers are used where moisture content will exceed 19% for an extended time period, design values shall be multiplied by the appropriate wet service factors from the following table (for Southern Pine and Mixed Southern Pine use tabulated design values without further adjustment): Wet Service Factors, CM Fb Ft F, Fa FC E and Emin 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.67 0.91 1.00 AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL ...
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