08-Proteins

08-Proteins - Basic protein structure primary structure Composed of different numbers combinations of amino acids Structures of proteins Primary(1

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1 Basic protein structure primary structure Composed of different numbers & combinations of amino acids Linked together to form large molecules Structures of proteins Primary (1°) — the amino acid sequence Secondary (2°) — coils & beta-pleated sheets Tertiary (3°) — 3-D structure Quaternary (4°) — multiple 3° forms We will simply call the (2°) (3°) & (4°) as higher order structures Protein Shapes There are 3 main types of protein shapes or structures Fibrous proteins: (linear) Insoluble in water, structural (muscle, connective tissue, hair, silk) Storage proteins (random shape) Insoluble in water, proteins for food (seeds, milk casein) Globular proteins: (globular) Soluble in water (egg, dairy, enzymes, myoglobin) These shapes are determined by the higher order structures Primary (1°) structure
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2 Amino acids link together Through “PEPTIDE BONDS” Primary (1 ° ) structure Breakdown of Primary (1°) structure (Hydrolysis of protein) Hydrolysis We would chemically (or biochemically) insert a water molecule, break apart the aa’s.
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3 Breakdown of of higher order protein structure What’s this got to do with food? Well, for example it’s how egg albumin changes (irreversibly) from soluble liquid to insoluble gel. What’s this got to do with food? Or, for example, how egg albumin changes from soluble liquid to a foam Bread Flat breads can be made from flour and water leavened by steam (wheat, corn, barley) Raised bread first made in Middle East 6,000 years ago Wheat is special in its ability to make raised bread – wheat + water yields gluten, which holds CO 2 produced by yeast fermentation
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4 Egypt 1200 BC Wheat Flour Flour Protein (%) Uses Cake 7.5 Cakes All-purpose 12 Biscuits, scones Bread 14 Yeast bread, pizza Durum (semolina) 13 pasta Flour + Water
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5 Famous Food Scientists Thomas Jefferson Higher order structure higher order structure Higher order structure Here’s something a little closer to food though Ever bit into a piece of meat with tough gristle? If you want it less tough just use magic… (water & heat)
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6 Tertiary (3°) structure The next slide is a visual aid by Alton Brown to show the unwinding of collagen into gelatin The clip is from a session where he is
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2009 for the course FST FST 10 taught by Professor Shoemaker during the Spring '09 term at UC Davis.

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08-Proteins - Basic protein structure primary structure Composed of different numbers combinations of amino acids Structures of proteins Primary(1

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