09-Dairy - Milk Background Milk is a nutritive beverage...

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1 Milk Background Milk is a nutritive beverage obtained from various animals and consumed by humans. Most milk is obtained from dairy cows, although milk from goats, water buffalo, and reindeer is also used in various parts of the world. In the United States, and in many industrialized countries, raw cow's milk is processed before it is consumed. Middle USA Milk History With the development of the dairy industry in the United States, a variety of machines for processing milk were also developed. In 1856, Gail Borden patented a method for making condensed milk by heating it in a partial vacuum. Not only did his method remove much of the water so the milk could be stored in a smaller volume, but it also protected the milk from germs in the air. Borden opened a condensed milk plant and cannery during the Civil War, and his condensed milk was used by Union troops and its popularity spread.
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2 History The use of milk as a beverage probably began with the domestication of animals. Goats and sheep were domesticated in the area now known as Iran and Afghanistan in about 9000 B.C., and by about 7000 B.C. cattle were being herded in what is now Turkey and parts of Africa. The method for making cheese from milk was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans, and the use of milk and milk products spread throughout Europe in the following centuries. World’s Milk Production Top Ten Milk Consumers — 2006 Per Capita Consumption Country Liters Cheese (kg) Butter(kg) Finland 184 19 5.3 Sweden 146 18 1.0 Ireland 130 10 2.9 Netherlands 123 20 3.3 Norway 117 16 4.3 Spain 119 10 1.0 Switzerland 112 22 5.6 United Kingdom 111 12 3.7 Australia 106 12 3.7 Canada 95 12 3.3 France 68 23 8.8 Top Ten Milk Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) India 91,940 United States 80,264 China 32,179 Russia 31,144 Pakistan 29,672 Germany 28,487 France 26,133 Brazil 23,455 United Kingdom 14,577 New Zealand 14,500 Composition • Lactose 4.8% • Fat 3.7% • Protein 3.5% – Casein proteins (storage) 3.0% – Whey proteins (globular) 0.5% • Ash (minerals) 0.7% • WATER 87% pH~7 (neutral) Melamine 66% nitrogen Several thousand babies in China became ill with several fatalities, having been fed formula milk contaminated with the industrial chemical melamine. Allegedly, someone in the supply chain, milk supplier or manufacturer, was adding melamine to the milk formula to artificially inflate the reading for protein levels.
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3 Toxicity However, the toxic dose of melamine is on a par with common table salt with an LD 50 of more than 3 grams per kilogram of bodyweight. FDA scientists explained that when melamine and
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2009 for the course FST FST 10 taught by Professor Shoemaker during the Spring '09 term at UC Davis.

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09-Dairy - Milk Background Milk is a nutritive beverage...

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