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11_12-Flavor_Beverages

11_12-Flavor_Beverages - Midterm 2 Thursday February 19th...

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1 Midterm 2, Thursday February 19th Includes: lecture 7 (proteins) through Lecture 12 (Beverages) Flavor & Beverages aroma (odor, smell) Taste Pungency Aromas and Gods “Aromas are an invisible, intangible presence. “ To cultures that knew nothing of molecules and odor receptors, this ethereal, penetrating quality suggested a realm of invisible beings and powers” McGee p388 Attraction of Spices in Antiquity 1. Magical rites and spells 2. Purification ceremonies and embalming 3. Fragrances and perfumes 4. Flavoring and condiments 5. Food Preservation 6. Curatives, aphrodisiacs, vermafuges 7. Poisons Spices were used in early Egypt as aromatic body ointments a nd pomades.
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2 Compounding Ointments and Perfumes (Thebes 1500 BCE) Assistants crush dried herbs with pestle and mortar (1,2,3,4). Crushed herbs are added to a bowl of molten fat, stirred (5) and shaped into balls upon cooling (6). Special jars probably containing spiced wine, a useful solvent because of alcohol. Content is siphoned and filtered into a bowl (7). At extreme left an assistant shapes a piece of wood beneath a bowl heaped with unguents (8). Ancient Spice Trade Evidence of silk 1000 BCE evidence of early trade between Egypt and China The campaign of Alexander the Great in northern India in 326 BC led to increased botanical knowledge concerning spices and herbs. Trade between Middle East and India increased under Roman rule: route from India to Red Sea to Egypt, down the Nile to Alexandria and then to Greece and Italy via the Mediterranean Sea. Spices important part of Roman revenue Middle Ages Commerce between Europe and East limited Moslem Arabs controlled the spice trade Venice became great power and controlled the Adriatic and grew rich based on its trade with the east Marco Polo (1254-1324) Venetian visited the Kublai Khan in China and brought back secret source of spices Describes Silk Road and seas routes to India Plague outbreaks in 14th century increased value of spices Spices were in demand in medieval Europe to mask the unpleasant odor and taste of decomposing food. The globalization of the Spice Trade Prince Henry the Navigator b. 1394. Establishes navigational school in Portugal. Convinced that India could be reached by sailing along coast of Africa “And the rest is History”
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3 A worthy footnote: 1492 – Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) thinks Portugal errs in sailing East, and looks for a western route. Discovers Capsicums (red pepper) and Pimenta dioica (allspice) vanilla, cocoa bean In his journal he writes: That I have no knowledge of the products causes me the greatest sorrow in the world, for I see a thousand kinds of trees, each one with its own special trait, as well as a thousand kinds of herbs with their flowers; yet I know none of them, but I am well assured they are valuable.
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